2014, Vol. 15. #1-2

 

Травлєєв А. П., Горбань В. А. Оновлений склад Наукової Ради з проблем ґрунтознавства Національної академії наук України

Travleyev A. P., Gorban V. A. The new composition of the Scientific Council on soil science problems of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

DOI: 10.15421/041401

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The main results of the work of the Scientific Council on Soil Science Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for 2012–2014 are given. The new structure of the Scientific Council on Soil Science Problems of NASU in the Bureau of the Scientific Council, the members of the Scientific Council and the 24 scientific committees are presented.

Key words: Scientific Council on Soil Science Problems of NASU, the results of the work, the new composition
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

 

THEORETICAL ISSUES OF SOIL SCIENCE / ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ПИТАННЯ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВА

 

Медведев В. В. Содержание и закономерности антропогенной эволюции почв

Medvedev V. V. The contents and laws of soil anthropogenous evolution

DOI: 10.15421/041402

Abstract (Show preview in english)


Long soil ploughed up are typical polygenetic formations as in their formation alongside with natural the significant role is played with anthropogenous factors. Under action of mechanical, chemical, reclamative and other kinds influences natural soils lose inherent in them a structure, properties and modes. Anisotropism, spatial heterogeneity, preferential descending and ascending streams of a moisture amplify, new types of horizontal and vertical soil structures are formed, grows the equilibrium bulk density, consolidation and quantity of false aggregates, the structure pore spaces changes, obvious braking processes of aggregation is marked, ability to convertibility of properties and modes as the basic condition of counteraction of degradation processes is lost, rhythmic of soil formation due to activization relax processes is broken characteristic for natural soil. Significant changes occur in thin dispersed mineral and organic parts. The total humus decreases, its lability increases, is observed claying, because of increase in depth of watering and lowering of carbonates level it is locally marked acidification. As a result it is ascertained, that in conditions of unbalanced and poor-quality land tenure even simple reproduction of soil fertility is impossible, and an equilibrium (stable) condition of soil properties and modes – more likely wrongly generated on the basis of not enough long-term researches. As a result of anthropogenous evolution for rather short historical time interval the new body – anthropogenous transformed soils was generated. This fact demands reflection in soil classification and correctives in studying, management of their fertility and use. Possible scripts of the further anthropogenous soil evolution are discussed: the degradation, a seeming balance and "reasonable" precise agriculture.

Degradation (degradation) – the most probable script at preservation of modern unbalanced and poor-quality agriculture. Degradation in these conditions can gradually become the factor forming an agrisoil. A seeming balance (seeming equilibrium, balance). – the least probable script. Seeming because it is characteristic for short-term prospect, but in conditions of long scarce balance elements and excessive mechanical loading soil evolution cannot be equilibrium. Steady development - the script to which it is necessary to aspire ("reasonable" agriculture - intelligence agriculture). The script on immediate prospects – instead of the zone generalized technologies – exact agriculture (precise agriculture) in view of spatial diversity, history of a field and a stage of its anthropogenous evolution.

The organization of researches is necessary for realization of the favorable script of anthropogenous soil evolution with use of modes in situ and on-line, landscape soil-ecological ranges, complex stationary experiences with application of methods of planning of experiment, use of effective methods of forecasting of soil processes and as a whole exemplary system of scientific monitoring. Uncontrolled soil use in the country should not be.

Key words: evolution, degradation, anthropogenous transformed soils, methodology of studying and management
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

CHEMISTRY OF SOILS / ХІМІЯ ҐРУНТІВ

 

Опанасенко Н. Е., Евтушенко А. П., Гришина А. П. О магниевой солонцеватости плантажированных почв Причерноморской низменности

Opanasenko  N. Ye., Yevtushenko A. P., Grishina A. P. Magnesian alkalinity of trenching soils of Prichernomorskaya lowland

DOI: 10.15421/041403

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The data of scientists about spreading, genesis, composition and properties of low natrium soils with high content of magnesium in soil sorption complex, and its influence on plants have been considered.

The aim was to determine the absorbed ability of soils and the level of saturation by bases; to determine the dependence of density of foundation, quantity of silt from the content of absorbed magnesium from magnesium water soluble salts in them; to determine kation-anion and salt composition of irrigation waters.

The trenching low natrium remaining alkolinic south black soils, dark-chestnut, turf-steppe black soils of Prichernomorskaya lowland with content 20–73 % Mg2+ in soil sorption complex and also irrigation waters have been studied. Physical clay, silt, volumetric mass, general porosity, air-volume, water-permeability, micro-aggregate composition, absorbed base, kation-anion composition of easy soluble salts and hypothetic salts have been determined in soils. Kation-anion composition and hypothetic salts have been determined in irrigation waters.

The sum of absorbed bases in studied soils corresponded to the content of fraction of physical clay and silt, and also to the provision of soils with organic substances. The humus reserves in trenching layer 0–60 cm of black south soils were 200–240 t/ha, dark-chestnut soils – 150–180 t/ha, turf-steppe light suglinic – soils 80–130 t/ha/ That’s quite normal that south black soils (30 mg-eq./100 gr.) have the best absorbed ability, and the turf-steppe susand soils have the worst absorbed ability (9 mg-eq./100 gr.).

Accordance of absorptive ability of soils to the content of fraction of physical clay, silt, humus has been determined. The largest content and variation of absorbed magnesium in soil sorption complex of trenching layers of light suglinic and susand turf-steppe soils of high river terraces and the lowest content in black south soils and dark-chestnut soils have been established. It has been established that for genetically different soils with high content of exchanged magnesium the high density of formation, low general porosity, air-volume, water-irrigation, micro-aggregation and also clods, cracks and dust in dry condition, absence of illuviration are typical.

Kation-anion composition of easy soluble salts in soils and in irrigation waters has been analyzed in details. The sum of all toxic water soluble salts in black south soils was 0.31 mg-eq./100 gr., magnesium salts (MgCO3, Mg(HCO3)2, MgCl2, MgSO4) – 0.18 mg-eq./100 gr. or 58 % from the sum of toxic salts. In dark-chestnut soils these indexes were 0.16 and 0.11 mg-eq./100 gr. and 69 %; in turf-steppe light suglinic soils – 0.32 and 0.18 mg-eq./100 gr. and 56 %; and for turf-steppe susand soils they were 0.26 and 0.15 mg-eq./100 gr. and 58 %. In all soils chlorides magnesium prevailed over toxic salts (NaCl+MgCl2+CaCl2).

In south black soils and turf-steppe soils in layer 0–60 cm there were both toxic and magnesium salts. Dark-chestnut soils in comparison with above said ones have less toxic salts and less magnesium salts, but their part in the sum of all salts was the highest – 69 %. The less content of toxic salts in dark-chestnut soils in comparison with others is attributed to their location to good drained height in Ochakov region.

Probability of irrigation magnesium solonetzation of soils under long watering of orchards and vineyards by water from artesian well, Ingulets canal and from pond has been studied.

In fresh and weakly mineral waters among toxic salts the magnesium salts (67-88%) as also in soils, chloride of magnesium are prevailed. Prevailing of magnesium over calcium in irrigated waters reduces quality of water and leads to accumulation of Mg2+ in soil sorption complex and negatively influences on soils.

The following conclusions have been done: Genetically different low natrium remaining alkolinic with high content of exchanged magnesium in soil absorption complex trenching soils are characterized by high density, low porosity, air-volume, water-permeability, micro-aggregation and also clods, cracks and dust in dry condition, absence of illuviration.

In soils and irrigation waters magnesium salts prevail over toxic easy soluble salts (67–88 % and 56–69 %). There are the probable sources of large accumulation of magnesium in soil absorption complex, magnesium solonetziration and the reason of unfavourable soil conditions.

Key words: absorptive ability of soils, exchanged magnesium, easily soluble salts
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

Самохвалова В. Л., Погромська Я. А., Фатєєв А. І., Зуза С. Г., Зуза В. О. Екологічна реабілітація ґрунтів техногенно забруднених переважнокадмієм, цинком та міддю

Samokhvalova V. L., Pogromskaya Y. А., Fateev A. I., Zuza S. G., Zuza V. A.   Environmental remediation of soils polluted mainly cadmium, zinc, and copper

DOI: 10.15421/041404

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The method of remediation of soil technogenic polyelemental contaminated mainly Cd, Zn and Cu, where due to the use as a sorbent - ameliorants compounds of iron (II) and phosphate fertilizers in a certain ratio in accordance with the level of contamination of soils, increase in the efficiency of their environmental rehabilitation and recovery 's natural buffer properties, through influence on the processes of different hazard classes heavy metals migration and trophic regime in the soil, and of the plants productivity with higher rates of ecological safety. The technical result of the elaboration method is to accelerate the processes of heavy metals physical and chemical fixation by making joint structuring improver of inorganic type together with mineral substrates that are effectively reduce toxicity of pollutants, optimization and restoration of the environmental state of the soil-plant system, its resistance to pollution by heavy metals.

The elaboration of the method involved the improvement of the known method, accelerated of the of physical-chemical fixation processes of heavy metals different hazard classes by application of soil improver of inorganic type compatible with the type of inorganic mineral substrates, which enables for effective impact on expanding the range of heavy metals different hazard classes unable to migration into adjacent soil environment and on their mobility, to provide optimization and restoration of the soil-plant system ecological state, its resistance to heavy metals pollution.

Distinctive features and benefits of the proposed technical solution, compared with known techniques and approaches are the following: ensuring the effective reduction of the heavy metals toxicity of danger various classes with optimal conditions of physical and chemical adsorption mainly Cd, Zn and Cu by simultaneous restoration of natural soil properties (elemental composition, physical and chemical properties for the improvement of organic matter and soil trophic mode) and an allowance of the soil nutrients; resource costs reduce complexity and implementation procedures for environmental rehabilitation of contaminated soils at different levels of heavy metals pollution in areas of impact sustainable sources influence of technogenic emissions due to the accuracy of the determining the ratio of soil improvers inorganic type doses and fertilizers, effective impact of the proposed composition of the first year of application and prolongation of validity up to 5 years.

Key words: heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, copper), technogenic pollution of soils, the method, remediation
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

 

SOIL BIOLOGY / БІОЛОГІЯ ҐРУНТІВ

 

Малиновська І. М., Гаврилов С. О. Вплив  способу обробітку на спрямованість та напруженість мікробіологічних процесів у сірому лісовому  ґрунту

Malynovska  I. M., Gavrilov S. A. Effect of tillage methods on directionality  and intensity of microbiological processes in gray forest soil

DOI: 10.15421/041405

Abstract (Show preview in english)



The direction and intensity of microbiological processes in the gray forest soil with different ways of its primary tillage has been investigated. It has been established that the method and depth of primary tillage affects the abundance and physiological and biochemical activity of microorganisms of most studied ecological, trophic and functional groups. Soil after plowing characterized with the lowest number of microorganisms, and soil after surface cultivation – with the largest. The total number of microorganisms in the control variant with surface cultivation exceeds the number of bacteria in the control variant with plowing at 2,10 times, with bringing of by-products – at 2,03, with fertilization – at 1,31 times.

Method of soil tillage affects the number of Azotobacter: fertilization with plowing and disking leads to a significant increase the number of microorganisms and the change of the dominant species of Azotobacter vinelandii on A. chrooccocum. Fertilization with using of surface cultivation leads to decrease the number of Azotobacter population at 3,3 times, while change in the dominant species does not occur. Adding by-products leads to an increase the number of Azotobacter, because the C/N ratio in the soil is increasing.

Adding crop by-products which contain large amounts of polysaccharide molecules with the ability to accumulate a variety of pollutants promotes a decrease pressures on agroecosystem, resulting in a decrease the proportion melanin-synthesizing micromicetes in the total number of microscopic fungi. Adding crop by-products together with mineral fertilizer by-products which are composed of undesirable impurities again leads to an increase the proportion of melanin-synthesizing micromicetes.

Tillage affects the activity of organic matter development: this process is more active with the use of plowing than process with the use of disking and surface cultivation. Adding by-products can significantly reduce the activity of organic matter expenditure: with plowing – by 146,6 %, with disking – 16,9, with surface cultivation – by 28,8 %. The combined use of by-products with chemical fertilizers can reduce this figure even greater extent due to better plant growth in these experimental variants and the allocation of root exudates that affect the course mineralization processes in soil. Tillage variants differ in their effects on mineralization activity of humic substances. Ploughing leads to the activation of this process: humus mineralization activity in the control variant is higher than in variants with disking and surface cultivation by 11,9 and 49,6 %, respectively. Maximum deceleration of humus mineralization is achieved with soil surface tillage.

The toxicity of the soil is the smallest with the use of plowing, especially in the form of plant mineral nutrition optimization and adding of by-product precursor. A possible reason for this may be the oxidation of toxic substances with oxygen that has more access in comparison with the soil surface disking and cultivation.

Key words: soil tillage, ammonificators, Azotobacter, polysaccharide-synthesizing microorganisms, melanin-synthesizing microorganisms, organic matter development, humus mineralization, phytotoxicity
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

Шеховцева О. Г. Ґрунтові водорості урбоекосистем міста Маріуполя

Shekhovtseva O. G. Soil algae in urban ecosystems of the city of Mariupol

DOI: 10.15421/041406

Abstract (Show preview in english)



In the present time, a special attention is paid, worldwide, to the investigation of the biodiversity in ecosystems, as a important characteristic of the ecological investigations. The processes of urbanization of natural landscapes have caused some changes of biological factor of the soil formation and also of the formation of artificial ecological systems. The algae are an indispensable part of ecosystems, performing an important regulatory function in them. So aim of the research was to determine the systematic, environmental features, species composition of algae communities of soil in the city Mariupol (Donetsk region). Structural features of algae soil in habitats with various character of action of factors of urbanized environment are subjected to benchmark analysis. Results of use algal groups for monitoring soils of urbanized ecosystem are described. Problems of algae participation in maintenance of surface ecosystems stability under anthropogenic pressure on the environment have been discussed. Species composition and indication properties of soil algae as biological pollution indicators of the protected of the urbanized soils have been studied. The results of researches of various soil algal flora of arboreal plantations and lawns of the Mariupol industrial city are resulted. Conclusions about the influence of various kinds of anthropogenic effect upon of species diversity algae are given. Specific lines of algal groups of arboreal plantations and lawns of urban ecosystems are shown.

The variety of the soil algae species has been investigated. Systematic structure at the level of orders, families, genera correlation of algae soil, life-forms are considered. The green and blue-green algae were found to be prevail, it was proved that they are the basis of dominate species complex. The greatest quantity of kinds of seaweed is allocated in zonal soils. The leading position in all investigated groups take representatives of Chlorophyta, except of the steppe phytocenoses, where the most various is the section of Cyanophyta. The increasing of species diversity of Xanthophyta is observed in the soils of background parts of man-planted forest phytocenoses. They are traditionally considered to be the index of purity of soil. Low species diversity of algoflora is a peculiarity of the city soils. Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta prevail, one-cell Xanthophyta are poor developed. A checklist of soil algal flora of the city of Mariupol is includes 78 species from five divisions: Chlorophyta – 32 (41,0 %), Cyanophyta – 25 (32,1 %), Xanthophyta – 9 (11,5 %), Bacillariophyta – 8 (10,3 %), Eustigmatophyta – 4 (5,1 %). Structural features of algae soil in habitats with various character of action of factors of urbanized environment are subjected to benchmark analysis. Including arboreal plantations 68 species: Chlorophyta – 27 (39,7 %), Cyanophyta – 20 (29,4 %), Xanthophyta – 12 (17,7 %), Bacillariophyta – 6 (8,8 %), Eustigmatophyta – 3 (4,4 %); in lawns 49 species – 23 (46,9 %), – 13 (26,5 %), – 4 (8,2 %), – 7 (14,3 %), – 2 (4,1 %) accordingly.

On results researches of quantity of algal flora of urbanized soils the change of quantity is marked on the whole toward a decline. Abundance and biomass of soil algae of different in various ecosystems are given. Fluctuation ranges in biomass of algae of arboreal plantations and lawns have been registered. The species composition, ecological structure algae of arboreal plantations and lawns was analyzed. Ecological structure of algal communities of arboreal plantations and lawns: Ch16Р15С12X8H6B5M2CF2ampf2 (68) and Ch15P10В6С6Н5Х3М1NF1CF1amph1 (49) accordingly. Among the algae life forms Ch-, P-, X- and C-forms are domination (58 %).

Key words: biodiversity, soil algae, abundance and biomass, urban ecosystem
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

FOREST SOIL SCIENCE / ЛІСОВЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО

 

Wasak K. Cellulose decomposition rate and features of organic matter in forest soils in the Tatra mountains

Васак K. Швидкість розкладання целюлози і особливості органічної речовини в лісових ґрунтах Tатр

DOI: 10.15421/041407

Abstract (Show preview in english)



The cellulose decomposition rate measurement and soil micromorphology have been used to determine the influence of parent material and tree species on mechanisms responsible for organic matter form differentiation in woodland soils in the Tatra Mountains in Poland.

The study area is located in the lower montane belt of the Tatra Mountains. Investigated soils are developed on dolomites and shale. In the past, beech and beech-fir forests had been the dominant form of vegetation in the study area. Since the 16th century, these areas were deforested until the 19th century, when reforestation efforts were undertaken. Reforestation efforts provided mainly spruce; hence, it is the dominant species in the lower montane belt at the moment, although in some areas, natural or semi-natural beech and beech-fir forests have survived.

Four plots were compared – two with soils developed on calcareous material (Rendzic Leptosols), one under beech forest and one under spruce forest, and two developed on shale (Haplic Cambisols), one under beech forest and one under spruce forest. Cellulose filters were placed in organic O-horizons and humus A-horizons in every plot to measure the cellulose decomposition rate. Before being placed in the soil, cellulose filters were boiled in KOH, rinsed in distilled water, dried, weighed, and set on glass plates in a nylon bag (1.5 mm mesh). The bags were placed in the soil vertically at approx. 15 cm intervals. After taken up, the filters were boiled in KOH, rinsed, dried, and weighed. The amount of ash was determined via combustion. The research was carried out during a period of 10 weeks between June and August as well as during a period of 1 year. Measurements were repeated ten times. A weighted average and standard deviation were calculated for every plot.

The cellulose filter method is useful because of the homogeneity of the substrate, which helps to exclude differences connected with the chemical composition of the plant material, a factor that affects the decomposition rate.
Undisturbed soil samples were taken from humus A-horizons in every soil profile. The thin sections were prepared and features of organic matter were described.

It was concluded that the presence of calcarous material negatively affects organic matter decomposition rates which is pronounced in both: higher amount of organic matter residues in humus-A horizons and slower cellulose decomposition rates in Rendzic Leptosols than in Haplic Cabisols. The influence of tree species on organic matter features is observed only in Haplic Cambisols, where the cellulose decomposition rate under spruce is lower than under beech. This suggests that tree species indirectly affect the cellulitic microflora only in acidic soils.

Key words: cellulose decomposition rates, mountain soils, parent material, calcareous bedrock, beech, spruce, Tatra Mountains
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

LAND RECLAMATION / РЕКУЛЬТИВАЦІЯ ҐРУНТІВ

 

Галаган Т. І. Гірничотехнічний етап рекультивації порушених земель та його еколого-економічна оцінка

Galagan T. I. Mine technical stage recultivation of the broken lands  and its ecological and economical evaluation

DOI: 10.15421/041408

Abstract (Show preview in english)



An ecological and economical aspect of restoration and organization of use of recultivated lands in agriculture are considered. It is proved that the price of the land which is withdrawn from agricultural production, consists of the price of the importance of the land as nature component, from the land price as basic method of production etc. The methodological workings out for the evaluation of the mine technical stage of land recultivation are offered.

It is emphasized, that in any case recultivation of the disturbed lands should be directed on the localization and neutralization of harmful influences on the environment, and on creation of conditions for restoration of fertility of the disturbed lands, especially with use of chernozem mass which preliminary was removed from a disposal area.

These are considerable expenses because losses from the agricultural lands consist of the losses from soil losses as the basic means of an agricultural production, from short-received profit in connection with deficiency of soil for restoration of the former productive area and from compensation of the lost agricultural potential.

It is noticed, that in the course of carrying out of separate excavation of the fertile layer of chernozem, its transportation and placement in collars, and also application on the leveled surface of the disposal area and planning of this entire surface, the soil undergoes so-called impoverishment, that is mixing of fertile horizons with potentially fertile soils. This process is accompanied by decrease, first of all, content of humus which quantity on the average in 1.5–2 times is less, than in humus horizon of zone chernozems. Thus, the more powerfully layer of the piled mass of chernozem on the rock, so match the bigger was the content of humus which, however, never exceeds a natural indicator.

For the first time in the conditions of Steppe Prydniprovia it was carried out the valuation of the basic types of artificial soils at some leading mining enterprises. For the standard is taken the average index of content of humus in not broken old arable lands in a place of creation artificial.

Economic calculations have shown, that recultivated lands which have a point 40 and above (content of humus about 2 % and more), are suitable for cultivation almost all agricultural crops.

The lands, that have the point from 40 to 20 – are suitable for introduction of hay harvests and hay-fields, and also wood and fruit – and – berry plantings. The lands with an ecological and economical point less than 20 should be used for creation of recreational zones, athletic fields, plots for holiday visitors in the country, forbidden lands, etc.

It is affirmed, that those types of soils which have not chernozem soil cover, but are potentially fertile (on occasion), it is possible to involve in agricultural production. These are loess, loess – like loams, their mix with other soils, and also grey-green clay and red-brown clay on which the farmers receive high and stable yield of multicomponent grass mixtures. But in any case, the indicator of the mark estimation decreases owing to mass losses of humus horizon, its impoverishment, reduction of capacity of the layer of fertile chernozem, unsatisfactory carrying out of amelioration operations and chemical kinds of land improvement. These lacks harm to use of recultivated lands in an agricultural production at that level on which they were used earlier.

It is established, that recultivated lands as the material substance, are capable to perceive additional investments of work and means. Their fertility is an objective ecological and economical category, which is formed as result of interaction of properties of the created lands, productive forces and industrial relations.

Key words: broken lands, mine technical stage of recultivation, soil evaluation
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

 

FOREST HYDROLOGY/ ЛІСОВА ГІДРОЛОГІЯ

 

Котович О. В. Вологообіг у байрачних дібровах степового Придніпров’я

Kotovych O. V. The hydrological cycle in the ravine oak forests  of steppe Prydniprovia

DOI: 10.15421/041409

Abstract (Show preview in english)



The characteristic of the hydrological cycle in the ravine oak forest is given in the work. In its preparation, we proceeded from assumption about the participation of groundwater in water feeding of wood vegetation. To confirm or refute this the term average groundwater depth, the changes in its long-term, seasonal and intraday level dynamics were analyzed. The intra-annual structure of the groundwater regime was established, while in the structure the three specific periods were identified – winter-spring recovery, spring-autumn recession and autumn recovery.

It was established that the duration of the hydrological year between the beginning of winter-spring recovery and the ending of autumn recovery was about 11.5 months. Most often, the hydrological year flows between January and December of neighboring hydrological years. The groundwater depth during the observation period ranged from 7.65 to 10.08 m from the surface. The amplitude of level changes between seasons was 0.57–1.59 m. The speed of rise and fall level was set, while the instability of characterized indicators was observed, that is closely related to the temperature of atmospheric air of the previous period. The annual dynamics of groundwater level is compensatory in nature, in which the spring-autumn recession is compensated autumn and winter-spring recovery. From the position of winter minimum level and the deviation of the average annual rainfall norms, it was found that the course of the annual changes level has a close correlation with the amount of precipitation. Intraday dynamics of level conditions during the vegetation period has stepwise, descending character, which means that there is no direct connection of groundwater with woody vegetation. It was found that at the absence of available groundwater, the incoming part of the water balance was determined by the vegetation period precipitation and the moisture contained in the soil at the beginning of the vegetation period.

The amount of precipitation of the vegetation period, excluding precipitation detained by the cover and litter, during the observation period was over 292 mm. Dynamics of soil moisture in 1.5 meters layer showed that the most dynamic changes in moisture took place in the upper meter of soil. During the non-growing period in the 1.5 meters layer up to 252 mm of moisture is accumulated. The total amount of rainfall and soil moisture in the 1.5 meters layer of soil at the beginning of vegetative period averages 542 mm, 46 % of which is soil moisture, and the remaining 54 % is the precipitation moisture.

The average annual evapotranspiration coefficient is calculated from the ratio of the amount of soil moisture at the beginning of the vegetative period and all vegetative period precipitation to evapotranspiration of appropriate period of time. In this approach the figure for ravined oak forests is 0.78, 0.63 – for steppe plots of virgin land. The general moisture conditions prevailing here are local, are formed under the influence of geomorphological features on the background of climatic conditions and are responsible to the intrazonal type.

Key words: forest biogeocenosis, groundwater regime, the dynamics of soil moisture, available moisture, precipitation, local moistening coefficient
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

SOIL ZOOLOGY / ҐРУНТОВА ЗООЛОГІЯ

 

Кунах О. Н., Прокопенко Е. В., Жуков А. В. Экоморфическая организация сообществ пауков степной зоны Украины

Kunah O. N., Prokopenko E. V., Zhukov A. V. Ecomorphic organisation  of the Ukraine steppe zone spider community

DOI: 10.15421/041410

Abstract (Show preview in english)



The conception of ecomorphes as ecological groups of living organisms has been developed by A. L. Belgard (1950) applicable for species of the highest plants of the southeast of a steppe zone of Ukraine. Conceptually close system of vital forms-biomorphs of animals and plants has been created by Mikhail Pavlovich Akimov (Akimov, 1955). A key task of an ecomorphic approach is the ecological analysis of ecosystems structure. The ecomorphic approach has been applied to various groups of animals: entomological fauna of wood plants (Apostolov, 1981), complexes of land arthropods (Barsov, 1996), communities of birds (Ponomarenko, 2002), soil mesofauna (Zhukov, 1996), coleoptera communities agrocoenosis (Sumarokov, 2007). To identify animal species as ecomorphes the expert approach was used: the expert in taxonomy group relying on the experience and knowledge of object identifies it ecomorphes. The algorithm of ecomorphes allocation of soil animals has been offered by Zhukov (Zhukov, 2009). With some changes this algorithm has been applied to allocation of spider species of the Dnepropetrovsk region (Prokopenko et al., 2011). A lack of the specified algorithm is that it yields satisfactory results only for abundant and frequent species in regional fauna. The shortcoming reason – it relies on parametrical statistics for which compliance of experimental data to the normal law of distribution is essentially important that actually can be established only for limited number of species. As result, for a number rather rare in regional fauna of species of spiders incorrect conclusions have been drawn on their ecological status which is known on data from spiders of regions more studied from the point of view of fauna.

In our work nonparametric procedure of a multidimensional scaling which is tolerant to a statistical property of distribution of an abundance of types has been taken for a basis of ecomorphic classification of herpetobiont spiders. It including has allowed to integrate the data collected by various authors in a wide time and spatial span for the general analysis. Faunistic collection also differed and by a technique: the sizes of the traps, fixing liquid, number of traps, an exposition time. It is necessary to consider these circumstances objective as ecological classification of regional fauna should be based on considerable on coverage in time and space a material which cannot be collected on completely uniform procedure.

The multidimensional scaling represents adaptive ordination procedure which assumes a choice of the final decision proceeding, first of all, ecological criteria, instead of especially mathematical. Such adaptability is reached by comparison of ordination decisions with markers of an ecological situation which are received at the biogeocoenosis description of places of sampling. These descriptions are presented in terms of typology of biogeocoenosis of Belgard (1950, 1971): their coenotic status, and also assessment of a mode of a fertility and humidity. The key material is received within the Prisamarsky biospheric station of the Dnepropetrovsk national university where within a monitoring profile reference types of wood biogeocenoses of a steppe zone of Ukraine are presented.

Primary data of ecological-faunistic researches are represented in the form of matrixes (tables) where columns are presented by a species, and lines – sampling points. Sampling points may be ecologically processed on the basis of biogeocoenosis descriptions. If to find nature of compliance between sampling points and species, it is possible to make interpretation of the ecological status of species, i.e. to reveal key ecological groups (ecomorphes) and to establish belonging of species to them. The multidimensional scaling allows to estimate within one metric space an arrangement as species, and sampling points. Co-ordinates of sampling points in dimention of a multidimensional scaling are used as predictor of ecological characteristics of the environment in these points. Applying the obtained regression models it is possible to estimates of optimum conditions for species if in these models to use as predictor co-ordinates of species in those dimention of a multidimensional scaling. Species which are characterised by similar optimum values of ecological factors form ecological groups, or ecomorphes. Respectively for spiders we allocate coenomorphes, hygromorphes, trophocoenomorphes.

Key words: herpetobiont spiders, ecomorphes, biogeocoenosis, trophotop, hygrotop
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

 

Андрусевич К. В. Экологическое пространство животного населения дерново-литогенных почв на красно-бурых глинах

Andrusevych K. V. Ecological space of the sod-lithogenic soils on the red-brown clays animal community

DOI: 10.15421/041411

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The ecological niche is the keystone conception of theoretical ecology. But for its use methodical difficulties appears which can be solved with the help of the number of statistical techniques which includes OMI-analyses. This procedure has given the possibility of visualization of the ecological niche of soil animal community of the sod-lithogenic soils on the red-brown clays. The phenomenon of differentiation of the ecological niche demands the explanation of structuring ecological space and detects of dominant factors which have influenced for the physiognomy of communities of soil animals.

The important problem is also to evaluate the role of ecological specialization of animals, which expresses in the terms ecomorphical structure. The usage of RLQ-analyses has permitted to quantity estimate the influence of vegetation features and edaphic factors on the spatial distribution of soil mesofauna.

The researching polygon is characterized both the presence of patch with optimal vital activity terms, and with unfavorable conditions. Mesopedobionts within researching polygon have been established as not being ecologically homogeneous. The functional groups A and B embrace in the majority of endogeic animals such as larvae of beetles. The ecologically diverse ecomorphic properties of these groups with high density of the animal community may be determined by the axis number 1. These groups concentrate within 3–4 meters diameter patches with most favorable conditions for vital activity. Such patches are marginal for this polygon. The functional group C is presented by gerpetobiont animals which are able to migrate and relatively tolerant to edaphic factors. That is why centroid of given group is most closely located to the typical condition of this polygon. Considered indicators of soil as environment of living organisms permit to estimate the community’s ecological niche.

The quantity characteristics of species ecological niches within researching polygon such as specialization and marginality have been estimated. At first for the characteristics of soil animals’ ecological niches have been used phytoindicator scales and ecomorphical analyses of the vegetations structure and also physiognomy types of it. The selection of functional groups of soil animals and applied for them ecomorphical characteristics are present high information values and conformity of indicator scales for the description of real current types of conditions of ecosystems.

Key words: ecomorphes, reclamation, soil mesofauna, ecological niche
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf