2015, Vol. 16. #1-2


2015 INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF SOILS / 2015 – МІЖНАРОДНИЙ РІК ҐРУНТІВ


 

Recio Espejo J. M., Nerger R. Soils of the pastures of Los Pedroches (Córdoba, Spain) (A contribution to 2015 International Year of Soils)

Реціо Еспехо Х. М., Нергер Р. Ґрунти пасовищ у районі Вальє-Де-Лос-Педрочес (Кордоба, Іспанія)

               

DOI:10.15421/041501

Abstract (Show preview in english)


Los Pedroches pasture settles on granitic-magmatic rocks evolving to young sandy soils, poor in nutrients and clays including Lithosols, Haplic and Cambic Arenosols and Cambisols. Exclusively in older and erosion-protected surfaces Chromic Luvisols (FAO, 1989) have been preserved.

Key words: granitic sands, soils, pasture, Los Pedroches, Spain
 

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THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES OF SOIL SCIENCE / ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ТА ПРИКЛАДНІ ПИТАННЯ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВА


Medvedev V. V. Continuality and dyscretivity of soils for fields: applied consequences for agriculture

Медведев В. В. Континуальность и дискретность почв поля: прикладные следствия для земледелия

               

DOI: 10.15421/041502

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The continuality is considered as the fundamental feature of a soil cover consisting gradual change of its properties in space, synchronized with changes of soil factors formation, and dyscretivity is mainly artificial the introduced category caused by classification appreciably various genetic and agritechnologic divisions. The soil cover is studied basically as continual and is very weak as a discrete body, especially if it to consider at an original average hierarchical level (mean spatial heterogeneity of many soil properties within the limits of polypedon, or, in a context of present article, – fields of a crop rotation). Certainly, it brakes successful development of representations about a soil horizontal structure and, as consequence, practical appendices of heterogeneity to precise agriculture. Zonal systems of agriculture are based on an environment of a zone and in essence reflect average continual features of a soil cover. Precise systems are under construction on the basis of dyscretivity of a soil cover – new soil borders which are used for allocation of soil contours within the limits of a field for differentiation of ways and intensity of tillage, dozes of fertilizers application and chemical ameliorants. In article attempt to use the established representations about spatial features of soil properties for improvement of modern practice of agriculture, especially precise agriculture, including ways of a finding of the area of contours of a field with different parameters of fertility are made. As objects 6 fields are used, three from which are located to Polesye, two – in Forest-Steppe and one – in Steppe. Use of principles of precise agriculture and inspection of display soil properties of fields on a regular grid has allowed to divide fields into contours with three levels of fertility, one of which is characterized by properties optimum or close to them, that allows to refuse (or it is essential to reduce) from application of tillage, fertilizer or chemical ameliorants. Precise agriculture – perspective soil – and energy saving the system reflecting heterogeneity of a field of a crop rotation, should replace traditional zonal systems of agriculture.

Thus, on the basis of research of various displays of heterogeneity - continual when properties of soil in space change gradually, synchronously to factors of soil formation, and discrete when properties of soil change in the limits of small areas necessity of introduction of new borders for the soil cover, based on horizontal studying of soil properties, – morphological, physical, physic-mechanical and others is proposed. By means of borders the configuration of industrial working sites for the differentiated application of agritechnological operations is proved.

Key words: continuality and discretivity of soil, zonal and precise systems of agriculture
 

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Chartko M. K., Karpichenka A. A. Atmospheric precipitation on the soils of Belarusian Polesye

Чертко Н. К., Карпиченко А. А. Атмосферные выпадения на почвы Белорусского Полесья

               

DOI: 10.15421/041503

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The article considers the influence of atmospheric precipitation in the form of dust and dry residue with rain and snow in the formation of technogenic situations in the soils of the Belarusian Polesye. Anthropogenic impact on the soil is formed as a result of entering into the soil of technogenesis product, is made up of atmospheric precipitation in the form of dust and rain, as well as key components of chemical reclamation (Ca, Mg, K, N, P) of soil. Based on field research and data of the Hydrometeorological Service of Belarus there was generalized the information and disclosed the regularities of dust deposition and mineral residue precipitation in Belarusian Polesye. Mapping the anthropogenic impact on the soil was performed using software packages ESRI ArcView and ESRI ArcGIS.

It is set a noticeable spatial heterogeneity in the level of anthropogenic impact on the soil of the Belarusian Polesye, ranging from 6,3 t/ha per year in the district of Gantsevichi to 17,6 t/ha in Malorita district, Brest region. There is a general tendency of increasing of the given parameter in the direction from north-east to south-west of Polesye. The level of anthropogenic impact is largely dependent on natural (soil properties and structure of the soil) and economic (level of development and specialization of industry and agriculture) factors. The lowest value of the anthropogenic impact (less than 7,5 t/ha per year) is characteristic for areas with underdeveloped industry and a high proportion of drained peat soils: Gantsevichi, Oktyabrsky, Narovlya and Zhitkovichi. For the western part of the Belarusian Polesye (Malorita, Stolin, Ivanovo, Berezovsky, Drogichin areas) other than large areas of sandy soils, characterized by increased loads on agropochvy (12,1 or more t/ha per year), the largest contribution falls on the organic fertilizers. Technogenic situation in the soils was estimated based on the amount of annual agrotechnogenic load on the soil, air emissions from stationary sources and the level of radioactive contamination, formed as a result of the Chernobyl accident. As a result, we allocated favorable, satisfactory, conflict, tension, and critical situation.

Favorable technogenic situation is typical for soils under forests and within specially protected areas (national parks and nature reserves) with anthropogenic load of less than 1 t/ha, not contaminated and distant from industrial centers. Such conditions correspond to 15 % of the Belarusian Polesye near major rivers and their tributaries in the region (the area between the Dnieper and the Sozh, the middle flow for the Pripyat and its tributaries Sluch, Yaselda, Ubort). A satisfactory situation has developed for 28,5 % of the territory, mainly within the northern part of the Pripyat Polesye due to a moderate level of anthropogenic pressure, in part – in the border of forest and wetland areas due to contamination with radionuclides. The conflict situation is typical for the northern part of Brest and Mozyr Polesye, on the right bank of the Dnieper and Berezina rivers, as well as in the area between Pina and Goryn rivers (27,7 %). In the southern part of the Brest Polesye, as well as in the countryside and along the Goryn river valley there is a tense situation (22,2 %), due to high anthropogenic pressure and intensive agricultural activities, in the latter case – also complicated by radioactive contamination. Critical man-made situation (7 %), which is observed in the south-east of Polesye, is due to high levels of radioactive contamination within the Polesye State Radiation Ecological Reserve and adjacent areas, despite the relatively low levels of air and agrotechnogenic pollution.

Key words: ingress of dust, dust deposition, dissolved minerals in rainwater, regularities of distribution, ecological evaluation, Belarusian Polesye
 

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ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCIENCE / ЕКОЛОГІЧНЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО


Samokhvalova V. L., Mangryka O. V., Fateev A. I., Gorjakina V. M. Patent-information support for assessing the environmental status of the soil

Самохвалова В. Л., Мандрика О. В., Фатєєв А. І., Горякіна В. М. Патентно-інформаційне забезпечення оцінювання екологічного стану ґрунтів
               

DOI: 10.15421/041504

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Innovative (patent information research, elaboration of new methods and their implementation) and environmental management, the using of human-contaminated soils, soil protection against pollution and its prevention are the basic directions of the strategic management of soil resources. In conditions of intensive anthropogenic pressure the assessment of the ecological status of soils is an important factor, which reduces the risks of soil degradation and to propose ways to restore their productive and ecological functions on the further development of functional - ecological approach in soil science (Dobrovolsky, Nikitin, 1986, 1996). Therefore, urgent and important in theoretical and practical aspect is the elaboration of new technical decisions (methods) of soil quality assessment to create conditions to improve and to prevent the reduction of the level of productivity of soils and plants, the deterioration of their quality.

The purpose of the investigations – the analysis of information sources existing patent information base of Ukraine and Russia on the issue of the environmental assessment of soils and perform patent research. Tasks perform patent research: the technical level of the object; analysis of scientific and technical activities leading developers; studying trends existing way to do that; techno-economic analysis of technical solutions/inventions that meet the objectives of the development; the study of the newness and novelty of the developed object and its constituent parts; investigated of the feasibility of its legal protection.

It was considered the features of assessment of the soils environmental status in the investigation of the current patent-information database in Ukraine and Russia, components of which are developed new technical decisions. It was reviewed the providing patent information to assess the ecological status of both contaminated and uncontaminated soils. By analysis it was found that the patent-information support of Ukraine and Russia relative to existing methods of soils ecological status assessment is presented by the following ways: the ways of assessing of the soils research background concentrations, mobile, gross or water-soluble forms of trace elements and heavy metals; estimates based on bioassay and bioindication in combination with chemical analytical measurement indicators; comprehensive and expert evaluation of the properties of soils and its contamination; assessment of soil quality, considering the physical, physic-chemical and others properties; assessment of soil pollution using GIS technology, etc. The technical result of the developed methods is to improve the objectivity of assessment of changing soil quality and accuracy of the expert-analytical assessments of functional suitability of soils certain territory to growing different crops on a permanent or constant impact factor of pollution; for zoning for maximum efficiency use of different methods, methods of remediation of contaminated soils or soil improvers of different nature and micronutrients using to optimize the trace element status of soil and plants, soil quality; to evaluate the effectiveness of the testing results of the elaborated technical decisions in different soil-climatic zones.

Key words: assessment, ecological status of the soil, industrial pollution, patents (technical decisions)
 

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Desyatnik K. O. Role of calcium in optimization of fertility parameters and conditions of pedobiont existence in chernozems podzolized

Десятник К. О. Роль кальцію в оптимізації показників родючості та умов існування педобіонтів у чорноземі опідзоленому

               

DOI: 10.15421/041505

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Physical, physical-chemical and biological properties of soil, and above all, the reaction of its medium, proportionaly dependent on its absorption capacity, especially in relation to such important macronutrient as calcium.

On chernozem soils of Forest-Steppe zone during podsolization, saturation of soil by calcium decreases that causes increasing its acidity, it has detrimental effect on biota, especially for members of soil invertebrates, which in turn play an important role in the transformation of matter and energy of ecosystems in maintaining ecological functions and improving natural soil fertility. Therefore, the issue of calcium availability and ways to improve its content in soil is very popular. Primary importance becomes liming, which is not only a factor in increasing the pH of acidic soils, but also contributes to ensuring this element for soils, plants, and by food chain for animals and people.

Purpose of the work – to establish the relationship between changes in physical and chemical parameters and the number of soil invertebrates (mesofauna) and structural-aggregate state of chernozem podzolized heavy loam by application of calcium ameliorants. Research on the effect of containing calcium ameliorants for physical and chemical and biological parameters of chernozem podzolized heavy loam were conducted during 2012–2014 in the Experimental Field «Slobozhanske» State Enterprise of National Scientific Center «Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Research named after O.N. Sokolovsky» (Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region) small plot experiment. Scheme experiment: 1) control (without meliorants); 2) slaked lime; 3) dolomite; 4) cement dust; 5) red mud. It was determined the dynamics of changes in pH, Ca activity, number of lumbricids and structural condition of the soil. Measurement of pH and activity of calcium ions (Ca2+) was performed at the beginning and end of the growing season for three years in undisturbed soil (in situ) by direct potentiometry using ionselektyvnyh electrodes for certified methodology NSC ISSAR (MVI 31-497058-023-2005).

Calculation of soil invertebrates (mesofauna) was performed by hand excavation and demolition soil samples by the method Gilyarova. The structural composition of soil was determined by screening in air-dry and wet sieving method N. I Savinova at a depth of 0–20 cm with subsequent determination coefficient structuring and vodotryvkosti.

As a result of the application of calcium ameliorants on chernozem podzolized heavy loam, there was a significant increase in activity of calcium, which in turn led to the neutralization of soil acidity. These changes in physical and chemical properties of the soil were naturally reflected in the number of soil biota. Because, ground mesofauna is one of the most important indicators of the environment. For example, reducing biodiversity pedofauny weakens the zoo of processes, and as a consequence of land degradation.

In the result of research, carried out during three years a positive linear relationship between increasing pH and number of lumbricids (rain worms) was determined, it was possible to note that by liming of chernozem podzolized the most favorable environmental conditions for life were created. At the same time it was proved that liming contributes to the formation of soil aggregates coagulation of colloids, and as a result soil structure improving. Statistical analysis of the data indicates a high level of correlation between the activity of calcium and structuring factor r=0,93. At the same time, there is a pattern to increase structuring coefficient by increasing the number of lumbricids (r = 0,74). Such dependence confirms the key role of calcium in the course of soil processes, and the need for a systematic approach in the study of influence of external factors on soil.

In this article it is proved that the application of calcium ameliorants on chernozem podzolized, not only neutralizes soil acidity, but also improves conditions for the existence of soil invertebrates, which make a kind of biological soil reclamation, that ultimately contributes to its fertility reproduction and self-regulation.

Key words: calcium, lime ameliorants, chernozem podzolized, lumbricids, structure
 

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SOIL CHEMISTRY / ХІМІЯ ҐРУНТІВ


Tkach E. P. The content of manganese in soddy brown soils of the Transcarpathian Mountain Valleys

Ткач О. П. Вміст марганцю в дерново-буроземних ґрунтах полонин Закарпаття

               

DOI: 10.15421/041506

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The soil covering of Transcarpathia, which is used for cultivation of crops, is rather heterogeneous as to genetic features of soils. This is mostly caused by the climatic conditions of corresponding natural zones. Brown mountain soils, soddy brown soils, meadow brown soils and mountain meadow soils have originated in mountainous areas on mountain ranges and slopes of different altitude, which are different in terms of mechanical makeup and are well drained. They are characterized by high content of inaccessible humus (in which fulvic acids predominate), acid reaction of soil solution and evident diversity in provision of mobile forms of nourishing chemicals. On the average, the reaction of soil solution is 4,60 pH of a salt solution, in the case of hydrolytic acidity – 4, 28 me/100g of soil, which characterizes them as semi-acidic.

The aim of our thesis is to research the level of manganese, which is one of essential and toxic elements for plants, depending on its concentration in soil, in soddy brown soils of the mountainous zone of Thranscarpathia, and also its distribution in profile of soil horizons. To carry out this aim, samples of soil were chosen by random selection.

Total manganese in the soil was determined by the method of mass spectrometery. The samples were extracted by hydrogen peroxide, chlorohydric and azotic acids (ext. p.). Dissolution of the samples was carried out using microwave sample preparation system. Active forms of manganese were extracted by generally accepted extragents: water-soluble extragent – deionized water; free forms of manganese – ammonium acetate buffer solution рН 4.8 according to M. K. Krupskyi and H. М. Alexandrova. Afterwards, the samples of soil were analysed using the method of mass spectrometery.

According to the results of the research, the max. total of the manganese is observed in the mineral upper humus-accumulative horizon, but if you make a transition to the parent rock, it decreases. According to the quantitative research on determining free forms of manganese, it can be observed that soddy brown soils of the researched region are provided with the mobile forms of manganese both in the upper humus horizon and in lower transitional humus horizon. Moreover, the humus horizon of the observed region has a high content of mobile forms of manganese, which constitutes >20,1, and in the transitional horizon to the parent rock the provision index is high. A considerable increase in the water-soluble manganese in the upper humus horizon was also observed. Its concentration is considerably decreased with a transition to the lower humus horizon. The research data confirms that soddy brown soils of the observed region are contaminated with manganese compounds.

Key words: soddy brown soils, manganese, contamination
 

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SOIL BIOLOGY / БІОЛОГІЯ ҐРУНТІВ


Yunosheva O. P., Ellanska N. E. Specific features of soil microbial communities under Lavandula angustifolia Mill. introduced plants

Юношева О. П., Елланська Н. Е. Специфіка мікробних угруповань ґрунту інтродукованих рослин Lavandula Angustifolia Mill.

               

DOI: 10.15421/041507

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In article the results of microbiological studies of Lavandula angustifolia Mill introductive plants soil are presented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of hydrothermal and soil conditions of forest steppe zone on the microbial cenosis formation and dynamics of taxonomic and ecology-trophic groups of microorganisms. 9–10 years age plants L. angustifolia (Yuzhnoberezhnaja and Record varieties) have been studied during two years on the experimental fields of the National Botanical Garden. Rhizosphere and rows-space soil were taken for experimental researches. Investigations were carried out by conventional microbiology methods – seeding of certain dilutions of soil suspension on selective culture medium. The comparative characteristic of microbial groups was investigated in dynamic according to the lavenders development phases.

The decreasing of quantity of soil micromycetes were found during flowering phase in parallel with increasing of their species diversity. It should be noted that compared to control, the lavenders’ rhizosphere differ wider range of micromycetes species that belongs to Trichoderma, Penicillium and, especially, Aspergillus genus.

The largest quantity of actinomicetes was observed at the beginning of vegetation. The development of actinomycetes and nitrogen transforming microorganisms depended on soil hydrothermal conditions. We observe decreasing of their quantity during deficiency of soil moisture. The numbers of spore-forming bacteria were significantly increased during the flowering period. Compared to control, the number of cellulozolytic microorganisms increased during intensive vegetation, whereas its highest activity was observed at the end of vegetation.

Lavandula angustifolia exametabolites positively influenced to the development of heterotrophic bacteria in the beginning of vegetation, as well as during the flowering, whereas at the end of vegetation we observe the decreasing of its quantity. In opposite, the number of oligonitrophylus microorganisms decreased during the active vegetation, especially during dry period. The correlation between organic nitrogen and non-organic nitrogen consumption microorganisms define process of humus formation. We observed that the processes of organic matter development were fairly balanced. The accumulation of soil organic matter dominated during active vegetation, whereas activation of mineralization processes occurred at the end of vegetation period.

Microorganisms’ content was higher in rows-spacing of plants, where concentration of exometabolites was lower. The dynamic of microbial cenosis and direction of microbiological processes have been similar in soil of two researched varieties, but the total number of microorganisms was higher in near-root soil of Yuzhnoberezhnaya variety.

The Lavandula angustifolia soil microbial cenosis forms under influence of its plants excretions, in particular essential oils, that have a specific effect on the microflora and cause a quantity decrease of basic groups of microorganisms. The concentration of lavender exometabolites decrease in parallel with increasing of soil moisture and accordingly inhibitory effect of essential oil changes on stimulation.

The understanding of soil microbial coenosis formation features will promote prognostication of interrelations between microbiota and plants. It will help to create sustainable landscape compositions and rational use them in making healthy ecosystems and other practical aspects.
Key words: micromycetes, bacteria, cellulolyitic activity, organic matter development
 

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Gryshko V. M., Korinovskaya O. N. Influence of organo-mineral fertilizers on the basis of the precipitation of sewage on micromycetes cenosis

Гришко В. М., Коріновська  О. М. Вплив органо-мінеральних добрив на основі осадів стічних вод на ценоз мікроміцетів

               

DOI: 10.15421/041508

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The influence of environmental factors on the formation of microforms typical for soils of the central river floodplain Samara and mechanisms of formation of the soil profile have been considered. The attention is paid to the identification and soil genesis of cutana. To achieve the goals the micromorphological research methods and techniques of scanning electron microscopy have been used. The decoding of soil thin sections has been carried out in the standard scheme. The relief of chip surface was studied in the secondary electrons, the homogeneity of the distribution of chemical elements - by the surface of the secondary electrons, the chemical composition of the studied surface areas was received by a microroentgen-spectral analysis.

The studies have shown the main features in the microstructure of these soils. In the profile the microstructure is inhomogeneous, in the upper horizons is silty-plasma, changes with the depth to sand-plasma and in the lower horizons – plasma-sand. The skeleton grains are characterized by the following transfer on their surface (scratches) and by a good roundness. Plasma is humus-clay, with the depth the clayey plasma decreases. It is typical for the clay part of the plasma two refractive indices, the orientation and the ability to restructure. The pore space is the most developed in the upper horizons, thanks to digging activity of earthworms. With the depth the pore area decreases and often the pore walls cover with clayey cutanas for the illuvial processes. As a result of intensive impacts of nutrient factors, the upper horizons are well-structured. In each profile you can select several kaprolit horizons. For this kind of profile the humus mull is more typical. Kutana complex is represented by clay cutana. In the upper horizons they are poorly expressed, are not present in all pores. Down to the profile their quantity in the pores increases, they become more pronounced.

The explanation of the chip surface using a scanning electron microscopy confirmes the mobility of plasma and illuvial origin of cutana. The data obtained in the secondary electron mode and microanalysis shows the monotony of addition with minor bright zones which belongs to titanium or chromium-containing minerals.

The features of the microstructure of the soil profile in central floodplain are conditioned by the floodplain processes. With the reduction of their influence, because of the increase between the periods of flood and their intensity, the forming role of biological factors increases.

Key words: cutana, environmental factors, micromorphological features, elements of microrelief
 

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GENESIS OF SOILS / ГЕНЕЗИС ҐРУНТІВ


Kanivets S. V. The evolution of podzolized and regraded chernozems in Eastern Upland Wooded Steppe of Ukraine and the ways of their development

Канівець С. В. Еволюція опідзолених і реградованих чорноземів східного височинного Лісостепу України та шляхи поліпшення

               

DOI: 10.15421/041509

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It is indicated that podzolized and regarded chernozems in moderately humid and arid zones of Left-bank Wooded steppe with HTC 1,2–1,0 (within the valleys of the Sula and Oskil rivers) occur in high watersheds along right bedrock banks of the valleys, adjoining or being included into wooded refugiums. Being formed by the grove biogeocenosis, they have high rates of fertility. The morphological research of natural podzolized chernozems profiles showed, that the upper humus slightly-eluviated horizon, densely interweaved by roots, has coarse agronomically valuable structure, loose composition, dark-grey colour, that indicates high content of humus. It is mostly favoured by the biologically active, rich in calcium ground litter and the pristinity of soil texture. The general capacity of the humus profile is not less than 100 cm. While brining natural soils into tillage some changes of soil development conditions arise. They are: hydrothermic conditions, secondary carbonate enrichment (regradation), loosening of illuvial horizon. Under mechanical tillage the granular structure changes into a pulverescent and cloddy one, the topsoil becomes lighter because of humus loss, though the humus profile becomes 10–20 cm deeper. The analytical results indicate the sufficient differences in physicochemical and agrochemical characteristics between forest podzolized chernozems and their regradated analogs in tillage. Natural soils contain 5,7–6,5 % of humus in upper 0–35 cm layer, and up to 10,0 % in 0–15 cm layer. They also have considerable resources of hydrolyzable nitrogen. In agrogenic soils the humus content is up to 3,6 %. The humus is of a humate type both in podzolized and regarded soils. The smallest proportion of Сh.a./Сf.a is in the lower layer of humus eluviated horizon of forest soils. The level of humus loss by agrogenic soils in humus slightly-eluviated layer fluctuates from 37 % to 44 %. Dark-grey and grey forest soils lose more than half of humus content, typical chernozems – nearly 30 %, ordinary chernozems – 20 %. Regraded analogs are inferior according to the hydrolyzable nitrogen content. Positive evolutional changes in tillage, such as acidity reduction, bases saturation growth, illuvium destruction, didn’t yield expected results – resistance to degradation processes. For the development of agrogenic soils it is necessary to implement flexible complex systems of husbandry with minimal intensity of tillage, adapted to the landscape, bringing the culture of husbandry closer to natural conditions. Promising is the implementation of soil protection technologies with the maximum use of freak produce of plant growing. The integrity of soil composition and biologically active layer of mulch create the conditions, close to virgin ones, that lead to the transition of soil to natural non-degradation conditions without losing its productive functions.

Key words: podzolized chernozem, regradated chernozem, soil evolution, soil degradation, humus.
 

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FOREST HYDROLOGY / ЛІСОВА ГІДРОЛОГІЯ


Kotovych O. V. Environmental hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in Dnieper Prysamarya as state indicator of reference and destructive biogeocenoses

Котович О. В. Еколого-гідрохімічна характеристика ґрунтових вод Присамар’я Дніпровського як індикатор стану еталонних та деструктивних біогеоценозів

               

DOI: 10.15421/041510

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In the paper, there is a characteristic of hydrochemical properties of the groundwater lying within the river valley of Samara Dniprovska, on the steppe plakor areas, under the automorphic soils and the water of the Samara River. In characterizing of the hydrochemical properties of the groundwater the author came from the fact that the groundwater, according to the previous studies (Kotovich, 2010, 2014), with varying degrees of share participation, is an integral part of the water balance of forest ecosystems and used by the wood vegetation.

Based on the landscape principle of groundwater formation there are those that lie within the valley of the river Samara, as well as the groundwater of steppe plain regions with automorphic soils and areas with developed gullies and ravines. The groundwater of the river valley for its hydrochemical properties is not homogeneous, and there is a clear binding of hydrochemical indicators to the main geomorphological elements with typical for them soil cover.

It was established that the groundwater of flood plain lying directly in the area of undermining near the town of Ternivka is the most mineralized – 1928 mg/dm3, due to slow water exchange with surface water because of sedimentation of the surface. Out of the influence of undermining zone the floodplain groundwater do not differ from the zonal groundwater; its mineralization is 1560– 1050 mg/dm3.

The groundwater of sandy terraces of the Samara river valley has azonal signs, namely – reduced salinity (110–150 mg/dm3), hydrocarbonate and calcium ion composition and acidic reaction of pH (4,5–5,7). It is noted that due to favorable filtration properties of sandy soil, salt concentration varies synchronously with the fluctuations of groundwater level. At the same time in the area of coal mining with transformed soil and hydrological conditions the groundwater has a higher salinity than the groundwater, lying outside the influence of mine water drainage, while the dynamics of change in mineralization lags behind fluctuations in the groundwater level for more than three and a half months.

Within the third terrace of the Samara river valley the mirror of the groundwater begins at a depth of 1,5 m. The total mineralization – 2640 mg/dm3 – is significantly higher than in the groundwater of the first and the second terraces. The ion composition is dominated by sodium and chloride ions, and the pH reaction is close to neutral.

The groundwater of the watershed areas between the Samara and Oril rivers lies at a considerable depth – 20 m, has mineralization of 2100 mg/dm3, and the ionic composition is dominated by chloride ions and calcium. At the same time, the groundwater in the area of developed network of gullies and ravines has a lower mineralization – 650 mg/dm3. It can be assumed that the differences are related to the terms of draining of aquifers. Analysis of long-term data of salinity in the Samara river demonstrated an increase in this index from 1738 mg/dm3 in 1929 to 3540 mg/dm3 in 2006.

Key words: ionic composition and salinity of groundwater, seasonal and long-term dynamics of hydrochemical indicators, forest biogeocenoses
 

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REVIEWS/ РЕЦЕНЗІЇ


Travleyev A. P., Gorban V. A.
Voloshchuk M. D., Petrenko N. I., Yatsenko S. V. Erosian of soils of Ukraine: the evolution of theory and practice. –  Kyiv : Nilan, Ltd., 2014. – 325 p.  

Травлєєв А. П., Горбань В. А.
Волощук М. Д. Ерозія ґрунтів України: еволюція теорії та практики / М. Д. Волощук, Н. І. Петренко, С. В. Яценко. – К. : ТОВ «Нілан-ЛТД», 2014. – 325 с.  

               

DOI: 10.15421/041511

Abstract (Show preview in english)



At the present time the great part of soils is exposed to various negative processes. One of the basic processes that lead to the degradation of soils in Ukraine is the erosion. According to the recent data, water and wind erosion covers 13.9 million hectares; it is about 33 % of the total arable land in the country. On this basis, the greater relevance belongs to the scientific studies displaying the features of negative phenomena of our soil, and, most importantly, the ways of solving of these urgent problems on the soil cover of Ukraine. The monograph «Soil erosion in Ukraine: the evolution of theory and practice» of such famous scientists in the field of Soil Erosion Science as Voloshchuk M. D., Petrenko N. I. and Yatsenko S. V. is one of such fundamental works.

In the present monograph, considerable attention is paid to the periodization of the formation and development of the doctrine of soil erosion in Ukraine. The authors identify six basic stages of formation of the national Soil Erosion Science.

The paper discusses the characteristic features of isolation of Soil Erosion Science as an independent scientific direction and a self-discipline, which are based on the works of such renowned scientists as P. S. Tregubov, M. N. Zaslavsky and G. I. Shvebs. A significant place in the monograph is devoted to the characteristics of the scientific centers of Ukraine, in which the Soil Erosion Science has been developed. These centers are distinguished by leading scientists, under the leadership of whom, the erosion processes have been studied. The authors of the monograph provides four main scientific centers of the country in the field of Soil Erosion Science development: National Scientific Centre «Institute of Agriculture of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences» (central region), National Scientific Center «Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Research named after O. N. Sokolovsky», Scientific-Technical Center «Fertility» (Kharkiv region), Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University (south region), Lviv National Agrarian University, Institute of Ecology of the Carpathians of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv and others (west region). In addition to considering the features of the listed centers, in the work there is a presentation of a brief description of the project, research institutes, agricultural and agroforestry research stations that are active in a scientific work in relation to soil erosion processes.

In the work, there are also the historical aspects and mechanisms for the further development of wind erosion researches. Considerable attention the authors of the monograph pay to the analysis of the current state, challenges and prospects of solving the problem on protecting the soil from erosion.

The main problem of the country's soil, which is the cause of widespread erosion, is a very high agricultural development of the territory, more than half of which falls onto an arable land.

At the end of the monograph, there are a large number of photos, provided by Professor M. D. Voloshchuk, which recorded various aspects of soil erosion manifestations, as well as the ways of its overcoming in the conditions of forest-steppe and steppe zones in Ukraine and on the territory of Moldova.

The reviewed monograph is certainly a very relevant and timely generalizing scientific research that will be useful in the theoretical and practical use of students, academic staff of the natural and agricultural higher education institutions, research organizations.

Key words: erosion, Soil Erosion Science, soil cover, soil protection, rational use of soil
 

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