2014, Vol. 15. #3-4


INFORMATION MESSAGE / ІНФОРМАЦІЙНЕ ПОВІДОМЛЕННЯ


 

Baliuk  S. A., Miroshnychenko M. M., Momot G. F. IX convention of Ukrainian Society of soil scientists and agricultural chemists

Балюк С. А., Мірошниченко М. М., Момот Г. Ф. ІХ з’їзд Українського товариства ґрунтознавців та агрохіміків

               

DOI:10.15421/041412

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At the beginning of July 2014 on the base of the Mykolaiv National Agrarian University the IХ convention of Ukrainian society of soil scientists and agricultural chemists took place. In-process convention 213 delegates and participants from 21 separations of Ukrainian society of soil scientists and agricultural chemists took part. The program of the convention included the plenary meeting and the meetings of sections "Genesis and geography of soils", "Evolution of soil properties, monitoring of the state, technologies of land-use management", "Reclamation of soils", "Protection of soils from erosion, recultivation and land-use management, ecological state of soils and their protection against contamination", "Agrochemical providing of modern agriculture", "Biology of soils", delegate meetings and scientific field excursion. Practically in all sections the problem of soil and soil cover conservation from degradation as a consequence of anthropogenic influence came into question. The Congress passed a resolution, where the work of Society was positively marked, the priority directions of the scientific and research and practice activities were defined, an Appeal to the President of Ukraine, Supreme Council of Ukraine, Prime Minister of Ukraine was accepted.

Key words: convention, Ukrainian society of soil scientists and agricultural chemists
 

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THEORETICAL ISSUES OF SOIL SCIENCE / ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ПИТАННЯ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВА


Medvedev V. V. Criteria, normative parameters and pedotransfer models for precise tillage

                Медведев В. В. Критерии, нормативные параметры и педотрансферные модели для точной обработки почв
               

DOI: 10.15421/041413

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As object the field by the area of 40 hectares in Forest-steppe of the Kharkiv area on which three types of soil are allocated - chernozem typical poorly eroded, chernozem podsolic and dark grey podsolic. The regular network from 45 elementary plots on a field have put. On everyone them the contents of physical clay and total humus (in the subsequent models it there were base parameters), and also equilibrium bulk of density, penetration resistance, blocks (functional parameters) and the crop are considered. Statistical parameters and geostatistics are calculated. Results of processing of the spatial information were those. Factors of pair and plural correlation between base and functional parameters - within the limits of 0,5-0,8, factors of a variation - low for the content of humus, physical clay and bulk of density, moderately high for penetration resistance and very high - for block. The variogam - mainly spherical type, the nagget-effect was insignificant, and the radius of correlation has made about 240-260 m. Though variability of base parameters was moderate, and functional raised, presence of autocorrelation function, that is its authentic deviation from zero, proves existence of spatial heterogeneity on the investigated field. About same obvious peaks on curves of spectral density of a dispersion testify. It means, that connections between base and functional parameters were encouraging enough, their spatial structures in the investigated field relatives, and search of borders between allotments with various fertility, it has appeared quite proved and successful. The final stage of processing consisted in construction of 2-D-diagrams on experimental data (with use of software Surfer), and then the same diagrams of blocks, bulk of density and of penetration resistance (as indicators of preseeding precise tillage) on settlement pedotransfer models. Instead of difficult procedure of an establishment of spatial heterogeneity of a field and revealing on it of contours with various physical properties it is offered to take advantage of pedotransfer models. As the basis for this purpose close values of thresholds of a dispersion and radiuses of correlation, authentic correlation connections between soil base and functional parameters have served uniformity spherical variogrammes. For a choice of intensity of preseeding operations normative parameters for display physical properties of a sowing layer are proved. Revealed on the basis of settlement models and natural researches on a field agritechnology contours for differentiation of intensity of preseeding tillage have appeared similar enough on a configuration and the area. Thus, in article the basic opportunity of allocation on a field agritechnology groups for carrying out of various ways of machining, using for this purpose pedotransfer models is shown. Pedotransfer modelling can become actual only on condition that other, more simple and effective ways of measurement of base parameters will be found, it is desirable in modes in situ and on-line. Pedotransfer models are perspective in precise agriculture under condition of development of remote methods of definition of base parameters.

Key words: models, texture, the humus contents, indicators of a sowing layer, agritechnology contours of field.
 

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Bogovin A. V. Conceptual aspects of the biosphere-balanced use of ecological and biological systems

                Боговин А. В. Концептуальные аспекты биосферно-сбалансированного использования эколого-биологических систем
               

DOI: 10.15421/041414

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This article covers the dynamics of the current state of natural ecosystems under the influence of rapid increase in recent decades of anthropogenic impact on them, with negative effects on the environment and normal reproduction and survival of the biota in it as a resource and most crucial basic integral part of the biosphere. It is noted, particularly, that the current anthropogenic influence has become a powerful factor in the evolution of the biosphere in which biological systems began to function in anthropogenically transformed circulation of substances, often severely impaired harmonization of processes of their self-recovery, often leading to the need for society to revise its behavior in the "man-nature-economy - living environment " system.

At the same time the conceptual aspects of strategic environmental and anthropogenic using of ecological and biological systems are presented. Against the background of the above-mentioned changes of the necessity of the transition from the unitary-consumptive use of biotic systems to the system(biosphere)-balanced, in which their component parts - the soil, plant, animals or other forms of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are considered not only as a source of obtaining the necessary and usefull for human products or basic production resoursed and objects of application of labor, but are as inseparable parts of a whole, functionally interacting entities of nature, beyond which, development and existence is impossible. According to tasks, assessment of the ecological and biological formations and optimization of their use can be carried out on 1) a globally-biosphere 2) landscape-ecological, 3) elementary biogeocenotical levels of the organization of natural and anthropogenically transformed systems.

In the article the methodological principles of assessment of the ecological and biological systems in the biosphere-balanced use of them. It is stated that the main focus of their learning and assessment is a systematic approach to the wide range of applications in addition to traditional methods of identifying of structurally elementary indicators and functionally-group-biomorphological, environmental, rhythmic and many other features, the fundamental properties of the study of nonlinear dynamics of processes as complex open ecosystems with determinant-chaotic type of development and the appearance in them of high degree of random factors in the formation. The high appropriateness of accounting hemerobility of representatives of biota is mentioned. that is, their genetic and physiological responses to disturbance of edaphotopes or cultivated land for establishing the degree of degradation of natural ecosystems and acceptable thresholds of anthropogenic load on them.

It is noted, that the implementation of a balanced use of natural resources of the biosphere requires changes in traditional thinking and developing of skills of innovative systemic approach and analysis of the surrounding material world, the ability to see the invisible on the basis of visible phenomena of nature, that is, the so-called invisible matter and its powerful energy - intra- and intersystem communication, laws of present and future development of ecological systems, and on this foundation to build properly a model of effective use. It is noted that human disturbance of balance in one or more parts of the system, due to the action intra - and intersystem balance masses, inevitably leads to a change in the entire system and puts it into new functioning modes, which are not always desirable. The task is to prevent the release of anthropogenic variability of natural systems beyond their adaptive stability.

Key words: absorptive biosphere, biodiversity, ecosystems, natural resources, the biosphere-balanced use of ecosystem, environment
 

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Dmytruk Y. M. The soils of the river valleys with an active erosive downcutting (on the example of the Prut river basin, Precarpathians)

                Дмитрук Ю. М. Ґрунти річкових долин стадії активного ерозійного врізу (на прикладі річки басейну річки Прут, Передкарпаття)
               

DOI: 10.15421/041415

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Disaster floods on the Carpathian rivers and surrounding areas as a result of radial and lateral erosion have predetermined to significant changes in geomorphological levels: the rivers bottom in some areas deepened to 100 cm or more, the coastline has shifted to 15–20 m, landslide processes first of all on the shores was invigorated. Due to the flooding in 2008 the soil and vegetation cover of the floodplains was completely destroyed, where the surface alluvial sediments and, often, the bedrock of the river valley went out. To prevent the river influence on the floodplain, the floodplain has become a terrace, so from this moment the alluvial soils have changed their place in the classification system. Pedogenesis in the river valley is certainly correlates with the specified geological and geomorphological processes, and therefore one question arises: in which taxonomic of soil classification the soil is, which now is located outside of floodplain, but the time that has passed from this moment is too short for the genesis of the first terrace soil (formed before our eyes). Shall we talk about the ancient age of alluvial deposits if they were formed in the last 100–1000 years? It is apparently that we need to consider the simultaneous genesis of thesediments, the landforms and the soils under the influence of the geological processes.

We have studied the valley of the river Lyuchka, belonging to Prut River basin. We have described the soils that are placed on the ecotopes that have a direct contact with a coastline of the river, on different height levels above the top of watercourse, as well as the cuts of zonal soils which were not under the influence of the river during of the historical time. Soil samples for analytical studies have also been selected. We have studied the cuts of such soils: 1) В-6, К-1 and К-2 – zonal; 2) В-1, В-2, В-5 and В-7 – soils placed on the first terrace; 3) В-3, В-4, В-2а and В-3а – soils placed on the floodplains.

The results obtained are summarized as follows. Soils of Lyuchka valley are developing on the alluvial deposits under which the bedrock are placed that in the area of research is clayey flysch; all these soils are on the development stage. Soils of the first terraces are Fluvisols on the complex alluvial deposits, mostly they have the average thickness and the soils are characterized of such morphometric features: humus horizon is from 33 to 66 % of the thickness of profile and transitional horizon is from 34 to 67 % of the thickness of profile. The problem of their selection is establishing of the age, because for alluvium is not specified definitions of "old, ancient". It really could be aged of alluvial deposits are a hundred-thousand years or even as whole Holocene. Another problem is a quick output time of the floodplain from the influence of the river and the formation of the first terrace. This requires a change of the name of the soil (maybe the output from Fluvisols). It remains an open question whether this change of belonging of classification reflects the inner essence, and whether all the soils of river valleys should be admitted young, genetically related (monogenesis) and therefore whether they should occupy one position in the classification system.

Key words: river valley, alluvial sediments, floodplain, terrace, soil, pedofacies
 

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Volosheniuk A. V., Chornyy S. G. Ecology-energy efficiency of tehnology growing agricultural crops in South steppe conditions

                Волошенюк А. В., Чорний С. Г. Еколого-енергетична ефективність технологій вирощування сільськогосподарських культур в умовах Південного Степу
               

DOI: 10.15421/041416

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During 2011–2013 years in a stationary field experiment on southern chornozem of Askaniya State Agricultural Experimental Station (Institute of irrigated agriculture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine (the Kahovka regions of Kherson Oblast) a comparative analysis of changes in the energy capacity of the soil in relation to anthropogenic energy costs of different technologies growing crops was made.

Calculations on four fields, each of which is treated by the three different technologies or soil processing: a) traditional (with turning of layer of the soil on crops of peas and sorghum and processing without soil layer turn in versions with mustard and wheat’s), b) minimum processing of the soil (surface tillage or «mini-till») and no-till (or so-called «direct sowing») were carried out. A research was conducted in four field crop rotation: winter (spring-sown) wheat, sorghum, mustard.

There was a positive energy balance for all technologies growing crops (when it was saved up by the energy soil more than it is lost) on fields № 1 and № 3, and negative on fields № 2 and № 4. In the case of a positive balance, the amount of stored energy in the soil under different technologies varies 6,5–18,9 GJ/ha. By negative balance energy losses are ground 21,7–37,2 GJ/ha.

The use of no-till technology reduces soil energy capacity in comparison by traditional soil processing on 3,36 GJ, which is associated with a significant reduction in crop yields and reduction of organic matter coming from plant remains it was established. The coefficient of energy efficiency technologies (ratio of energy capacity crop to the total harvest human energy is spent in agricultural landscapes in growing each crops) for all years of observation has a positive value (field № 1 and № 3), and negative (field № 2 and № 4). In the first case, its value is 0,13–0,51, the second –0,69–0,44. The highest rate was observed in the traditional technology growing crops, the lowest – for no-tiil technology.

The total change in the energy capacity of the soil under the different agricultural technologies for all years of observations shows that the least environmental and energy efficiency in all cultures showed no-till. Based on the above data, it can be argued that the properties of no-till technology which declared (reducing losses from soil erosion, improve physical and chemical properties of the soil, etc.) do not provide any benefits to which the energy balance of the soil, and, moreover, adversely affecting its energy potential. Direct seeding also has a lower environmental and energy efficiency compared to conventional and minimum tillage technology. All this is due to a decrease in productivity, leading to a decrease in soil joining the main source of energy soil – plant residues. Between ecology-energy and energy valuation of technologies growing crops on all versions of research there is a direct correlation – the higher the energy efficiency of technologies growing crops the better its ecology-energy indicators, due to the size of the annual energy investments, which are proportional values of vegetable remains. In turn vegetable remains depend on crop yields and energy density of anthropogenic origin.

Key words: soil, tillage, no-till, ecology-energy efficiency.
 

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Kanivets S. V. Gray forest soils peculiarities of loess islands in Polissia and Left-Bank Wooded Steppe of Ukraine

                Канівець С. В. Особливості сірих лісових ґрунтів лесових островів Полісся і Лівобережного Лісостепу України
               

DOI: 10.15421/041417

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The article reviews the achievements in gray forest soils study, reveals the main tenets of their formation and the results of authors’ research. The authors were induced to carry out the research, stated in the article, by the necessity to convert from the generalized characteristics of gray forest soils to the differentiated ones, as it is very important with regard to sustainable use of soils fertility and developing their stabilization measures.

The article deals with the peculiarities of gray forest soils in left-bank Ukraine from the aspect of these soils characteristic features discreteness within the area stretching from the Podillia to Central Russian Upland. The research was carried out in two provinces – in Chernihiv region, in the transition zone from Polissia (woodlands) to Wooded Steppe, where gray forest soils occur on loess islands and in northern part of Wooded Steppe in the valley terraces of the Desna and Dnipro rivers, and also in Kharkiv region in droughty Eastern Wooded Steppe of Ukraine.

It is shown that gray forest soils of loess islands of Polissia (woodlands) and northern part of Wooded Steppe were formed mainly on loessivated sandy loams and partly on loessial loam soils. Among the analogs from other regions they have the shortest humus part of the profile. By the way, humus coloration of the profile increases maximally in the soils of the most humid regions in the Podillia Upland, and in the northern part of the Central Russian Upland.

In Polissia (woodlands) and the adjacent (northern) belt of Wooded Steppe gray forest soils contain a very little amount of humus (1,2–1,6 %), have high acidity, contain few nutrients, especially nitrogen. Though, in husbandries of durable optimal arable farming culture rather fertile soils are formed, even on loess sandy loams. They contain 2,4–2,7 % of humus, are saturated with bases by 90–93 %, are characterized by the close to neutral condition reaction, have high content of phosphorus and potassium, and sufficient content of nitrogen.
T
he soils of droughty Eastern Wooded Steppe adjoining to right banks of river valleys, mostly along the edges of plateau terraces, were formed on heavy loamy loesses. The biggest tract is situated around the city of Kharkiv (Kharkiv refugium). They contain more humus (over 2 %), have a deeper dark-gray coloration of the profile, have a less lack of bases and are more saturated with nutrients, though have substantial acidity.

It is stated, that in the virgin gray forest soils (in groves) a rather high level of fertility is formed, active accumulation of humus, nitrogen and ashy elements, which are very important for soils fertility, takes place in particular. This is proved by the conclusions of S. V. Zonn and A. P. Travleev about the fact that a broad-leaved forest is not only the cause of leaching and podzolizing. But the factors of fertility decrease rapidly in arable soils. It is caused by stressful aeration while mechanical tilling, which is resulted in intensive mineralization of organic matter. All the above-mentioned peculiarities of gray forest soils properties are the necessary base of regional adaptive-landscape agriculture planning.

As for the improvement of gray forest soils classification, the necessity of singling out gray forest soils subtypes according to natural zones and facies is proved, including singling out the above introduced subtype of gray forest soils and the subtype of gray wooded steppe soils.

Key words: gray forest soils, loess islands of Polissia (woodlands), left-bank Wooded Steppe, Eastern Wooded Steppe, loesses and loess soils
 

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URBAN SOIL SCIENCE/УРБОҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО


 

Tyutyunnik Yu. G. Genesis, diversity and ecology of urban soils  (for example the park «Feofania», Kiev)

                Тютюнник Ю. Г. Генезиз, різноманіття і екологія міських ґрунтів (на прикладі парку «Феофанія», м. Київ)
               

DOI: 10.15421/041418

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In the paper the theoretical problems of the study of soils in urban areas have been considered. It is justified the notion urbopedogenesis as the process of increasing the diversity of the soil under the influence of urbanization. The main types of urbansoils of park «Feofania» and its environs have been studied and described (Kiev). The major factors and processes of soil cover degradation in the park due tohuman activity have been identified.

The main types of soils of the megapolis and its environs are the following. Ekranozem – the soil of roads with an artificial covering. Not all soil scientists agree with distinguishingof such soil category. However, the tendency to see the road as a special category of soils in the modern soil science takes place. Urbanozem andindustriozem – the soils of residential areas and industrial zones, respectively. Their distinctive feature is a genetic soil horizon «urbik». It consists of compacted products of municipal and building human activity (urbanozem) and their manufacturing activity (industriozem). The soil of dumps and technozem: forming in waste (municipal and industrial). They are characterized by high toxicity, including the gas release such as NH3, H2S, CS2, CH4, methylated forms of mercury. Culturozem – soil of parks, botanical gardens, oases created by man. They are distinguished by powerful artificially created humus horizon and increased nutrient reserves. Reсreazem,replantozem and сonstruсtozem – soil created by man for the purpose of reclamation and improvement of the soil cover of the city (mainly in the gardens and park landscapes, on lawns, in the houses adjoining areas). Acephalozem – soil resulting from the construction activities, but without artificial material (dug, redeposited, piled up). Pyrogenic soils – formed as a result of thermal effects on the natural soil. Soil with destroyed mesofauna and microbial pool. Have an artificial horizon from the ashes. Rammed soil – formed by surface mechanical stress (transport wheels, soles of the feet). They have compacted structures, impaired (deterioration) in water-air regime. Agrozem – soil of farm land and plots. In the cities it is found mainly in the districts of individual buildings under the gardens.

According to the degree of disturbance of the ecological functions of soil we have placed the studied soils in this order: ekranozem> industriozem> urbanozem > soil dumps and teсhnozem ≈constructozem > replantozem > recreazem > culturozem > acephalozem > agrozem > pyrogenic soil > rammed soil.

Key words: soil diversity, urbanozem, urbopedogenesis, soil ecology
 

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MICROMORPHOLOGY OF FOREST SOILS/ МІКРОМОРФОЛОГІЯ ЛІСОВИХ ҐРУНТІВ


 

Yakovenko V. M. The influence of deluvial processes on macro- and micromorphology of ravined forest soil

                Яковенко В. М. Вплив делювіальних процесів на макро- та мікроморфологію байрачних лісових ґрунтів
               

DOI: 10.15421/041419

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The paper presents the results of studying the effect of deluvial processes on the formation of macro- and micromorphological properties of forest soils on the example of ravined biogeocenoses of Dnieper Prysamarya.

Ravined forest biogeocenoses have a long history of development associated with the evolution of land cover in Postpleistocene epoch. One of the factors of soil formation in ravines is deluvial process as a natural phenomenon typical for the landscapes of the present steppes. Ravined forest soils in the catena in the upper reaches of the ravine Glyboky have been studied. They are situated on the upland part of the watershed-gulch landscape in 2 km tonorth of the Andreevka village Novomoskovsk district Dnepropetrovsk region. The methods of macromorphological and micromorphological study of genetic profiles of soils have been used.

It is established that ravined forest ecosystems are subjected to intensive influence of deluvial processes, whereby, morphogenesis of ravined soil has a complex peculiar character, which results to theformation of specific morphological properties. It is revealed that the source rock for the forest chernozem on the slopes and formeadow-forest soils of the thalweg are loamy humus deluvial deposits, unlike the ordinary chernozem near the ravines formed on loess rocks. Modern deluvial deposits are the materialof surface horizons of chernozems adjacent to ravine territories. Ravines act as storage ofhumus material of steppe chernozem rendered by adjacent areas.

The peculiarities of the morphological structure of the profiles of the soils indicate the intensity of involvement of deluvial material in the processes forest chernozem formation.

The different effects of slope processes on the structure of the investigated soil catenahave been revealed. Ordinary chernozem near forest edges have signs of erosion of the surface horizons, while the forest soils of slopes and thalweg are characterized by superpower profile.

It is found that the profile of the thalweg and forest soils tends to develop, increasing its power in the two lateral directions: down – thanks to the vertical flow of substances (lessivage, intensive movement of soil invertebrates, the development of the root system); up – the deposition of lessivage material. Deluvial processes connected with lessivage ones as theytransport the new mass of finely divided material into the body of forest soil.

Key words: ravined biogeocenoses; deluvial processes; humus loam; morphology of forest soils
 

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Strizhak O. V. Ecological and micromorphological research of soils of the central floodplain of the Samara river

                Стрижак О. В. Еколого-мікроморфологічні дослідження ґрунтів центральної заплави р. Самари
               

DOI: 10.15421/041420

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The influence of environmental factors on the formation of microforms typical for soils of the central river floodplain Samara and mechanisms of formation of the soil profile have been considered. The attention is paid to the identification and soil genesis of cutana. To achieve the goals the micromorphological research methods and techniques of scanning electron microscopy have been used. The decoding of soil thin sections has been carried out in the standard scheme. The relief of chip surface was studied in the secondary electrons, the homogeneity of the distribution of chemical elements - by the surface of the secondary electrons, the chemical composition of the studied surface areas was received by a microroentgen-spectral analysis.

The studies have shown the main features in the microstructure of these soils. In the profile the microstructure is inhomogeneous, in the upper horizons is silty-plasma, changes with the depth to sand-plasma and in the lower horizons – plasma-sand. The skeleton grains are characterized by the following transfer on their surface (scratches) and by a good roundness. Plasma is humus-clay, with the depth the clayey plasma decreases. It is typical for the clay part of the plasma two refractive indices, the orientation and the ability to restructure. The pore space is the most developed in the upper horizons, thanks to digging activity of earthworms. With the depth the pore area decreases and often the pore walls cover with clayey cutanas for the illuvial processes. As a result of intensive impacts of nutrient factors, the upper horizons are well-structured. In each profile you can select several kaprolit horizons. For this kind of profile the humus mull is more typical. Kutana complex is represented by clay cutana. In the upper horizons they are poorly expressed, are not present in all pores. Down to the profile their quantity in the pores increases, they become more pronounced.

The explanation of the chip surface using a scanning electron microscopy confirmes the mobility of plasma and illuvial origin of cutana. The data obtained in the secondary electron mode and microanalysis shows the monotony of addition with minor bright zones which belongs to titanium or chromium-containing minerals.

The features of the microstructure of the soil profile in central floodplain are conditioned by the floodplain processes. With the reduction of their influence, because of the increase between the periods of flood and their intensity, the forming role of biological factors increases.

Key words: cutana, environmental factors, micromorphological features, elements of microrelief
 

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REVIEWS/ РЕЦЕНЗІЇ


 

Travleyev A. P., Bilova N. A.
Tihonenko D. G., Degtiarov V. V., Gorin M. O., Veremeenko S. I., Furman V. M., Gavva D. V. Cartography of soils / Ed. D. G. Tihonenko, M. O. Gorin. – Kharkiv : Maidan, 2014. – 494 p.

Травлєєв А. П., Білова Н. А.
Тихоненко Д. Г., Дегтярьов В. В., Горін М. О., Веремеєнко С. І., Фурман В. М., Гавва Д. В. Картографія ґрунтів / За редакцією професора Д. Г. Тихоненка та редактора-укладача професора М. О. Горіна. – Харків : Майдан, 2014. – 494 с.

               

DOI: 10.15421/041421

Abstract (Show preview in english)



In the textbook, the difficult issues of cartography of soils are considered as an independent section of Soil Science. The proposed program of the discipline "Cartography of soils" provides the detailed research by future specialists – soil scientists and agrochemists of theory and practice of soil mapping and preparation of cartograms, serving as cartographic basis of rational land use, which is a basic mean of production.

The reviewed textbook is powerful on the content, but from the point of view of a scientist and a producer, the volume makes a service and performs another, pocket function, becomes a reliable reference book that is needed very much in-process. A positive factor is almost exhaustive information about the modern electronic-ecological and space methods of researches. A specialist must learn and get acquainted with the newest methods, as in the near time a modern productive equipment of the remote methods, undoubtedly, will be basic in cartographic work.

The collective, complex, well justified experience of application the methods of remote sensing of the Earth and GIS technologies for soil mapping. Much attention is paid to the traditional (classic) soil surveys. Without this knowledge, it is difficult to present the successful mastering of new methods of mapping.

In theoretical terms, it is important that the soil is considered by the authors as a component of biogeocenosis, ecosystem, geosystem. This is consistent with the opinion the great majority of the classics of the modern theory of ecosystems. After each section of the textbook the checklists and the tasks for independent work are offered. The tutorial "Cartography of soils" is based on the textbook of the same name, prepared under the editorship of Professor D. G. Tihonenko by the group of authors: D. G. Tihonenko, N. A. Gorin, S. V. Rybalko, V. I. Sydorenko, A. A. Remynsky, A. A. Georgy, M. A. Shchukovsky, A. I. Gorb, A. F. Saenko, S. A. Baluk, L. L. Velichko, M. V. Lesnoy, V. I. Filon, I. M. Belaya, V. P. Poluyanov, A. I. Fateev, the editor and originator – N. A. Gorin.

When preparing the textbook the authors have considered the experience of the Lviv-Odessa school of soil mapping, which is presented in the textbook "Cartography of soil cover" and "Factors of soil formation" (S. P. Poznyak, E. N. Kraseha, M. G.Kot), the experience of Kherson State Agrarian University – "Geoinformational systems in the agricultural sphere" (V. V. Morozov and A. V. Morozov and colleagues), the experience of the National Scientific Centre "A. N. Sokolovsky Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry" of NAAS of Ukraine – "The problems and prospects of remote sensing of soils of Ukraine” (S. G. Truskavetsky), the experience of the Kharkiv school (Karazin Kharkiv National University) of cartographicalproviding with ecological researches and nature conservation (V. A. Peresadko), the experience of Zaporizhzhya filial brunch “The Institute of soil conservation of Ukraine”, agrochemical cartography (A. A. Syzonenko), etc. The disadvantages include a surprisingly meager print run of the textbook, which comes under a signature stamp given by MES of Ukraine, in 300 copies, which in any case does not provide its needs at the time when the cartographic work started again throughout the territory of Ukraine.

Key words: cartography of soils, mapping, textbook, remote sensing of the Earth, GIS technologies
 

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Travleyev A. P., Bilova N. A.
Opanasenko N. Е. Skeletal soils and fruit cultures. – Kherson, 2014. – 335 p.

Травлеев А. П., Белова Н. А.
Опанасенко Н. Е. Скелетные почвы и плодовые культуры. – Херсон, 2014. – 335 с.               

DOI: 10.15421/041422

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A number of slices of roots of fruit and nut cultures are thoroughly analysed in the paper. The architectonic schemes of plant root system along the profile are presented.

In the gardens for the each breed of the growing cultures the test indexes of terms of their optimal growing are given, namely on the dense underlying rocks, in plantaged conditions, in the conditions of buried humus horizons. The power of root systems is examined, depending on the degree of fine earth and humus reserves. The scale of stability growth for the cultural garden plants of Crimea and many other indexes are set: water content in leaves, water intensity of leaves, real water deficit, water loss of leaves, indexes of the productivity, statistical indexes, productivity on the rootstock, hydrothermal coefficients, description of the south black earth, possible and optimal parameters of the power of the root layer, productivity on black earth, description of the foothill ordinary black earth, indices of growth and productivity.

All data of the grown trees, fruit and fruit and berry cultures pass a statistical treatment with the information about the indexes of the trees’ growth and productivity dependence from the properties of the skeletal soils. At the end of the chapter the theoretical conclusions and the direct recommendations for the practical workers of garden economy are given

Key words: skeletal soils, fruit cultures, properties, soils of the Crimea
 

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CHRONICLE/ХРОНІКА


 

Gorban V. A.  A brief summary of the Scientific Council for soil science of General biology department of the National academy of sciences of Ukraine in 2014

Горбань В. А. Короткі підсумки роботи Наукової Ради з проблем ґрунтознавства Відділення загальної біології Національної академії наук України у 2014 році

               

DOI: 10.15421/041423

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The main results of the work of the Scientific Council for Soil Science of General Biology Department of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in 2014 are presented. The basic directions of the scientific activities of all committees and sub-committees of the Scientific Council for the reporting period are given.
Key words: Scientific Council for Soil Science, General Biology Department, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bureau, Committees
 

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