2013, Vol. 14. #1-2

 

THEORETICAL ISSUES OF MODERN SOIL SCIENCE / ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ПИТАННЯ СУЧАСНОГО ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВА

 

Медведев В. В. Временная и проcтранственная гетерогенизация распахиваемых почв

Medvedev V. V. Time and spatial heterogenization of soil ploughed up

 

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In the article the term «heterogenization» is used for a designation of increase of time and spatial heterogeneity (anisotropism) during long soil tillage. Heterogeneity is a consequence of diversity of bedrocks, their non-uniform rock breaking, various forms of a relief and mesorelief, redistributing in space of substances and energy, various lateral and the vertical migratory processes strengthening differentiation of textural elements, density, properties and modes. Except for listed, the considerable contribution to differentiation is brought agricultural machinery, agrotechnologies, reclamation. As a result of the described processes (natural and anthropogenous) it is formed original mosaic of genetic horizons, certainly, in the greatest measure characteristic for superficial layers. The materials received as a result of comparative researches of properties of virgin and ploughed up chernozems typical, ordinary and southern, and also results of studying of soil spatial heterogeneity to Polesye, Forest-steppes and Steppes of Ukraine by imposing on fields of a regular grid of elementary allotments are used.

A microstructure (including, in thin section made in horizontal and vertical directions), and also texture, structure composition and the basic water-physical properties are investigated.

Heterogeneity is inherent in soil already in an initial virgin condition because of anisotropism of textural elements, aggregates, properties and modes. Owing to various speeds of movement of moisture and solutions depending on a vector and in pores of the various size, a configuration and extent arise different directions of movements of thindispersed weights. Growth of roots, activity of microfauna, and also the disorder volumetric changes of a body of soil during humidifying/drying, freezing/defrostation, compaction/decompaction promote development of heterogeneity.

Tillage, influencing aggregates and pores, strengthens soil anisotropism and as a whole reduces stability of bulk density in time, especially in soils with initially lowered mechanical durability of structure. Long tillage forms specific horizontal and vertical structures on a soil allotment. For a horizontal structure increase of equilibrium density in the lowered elements of a relief and at edges of fields is characteristic. For a vertical structure – accumulation of density in underarable layer (plow pan) and its gradual promotion in depth of root layer. Modern processes claying, lessive and podsolised also promote of heterogeneity.

In soil ploughed up, mainly, due to anisotropism of structure and pore spaces heterogeneity is capable to be supported and amplify in time. The relief is that reason which supports heterogeneity of a field in a horizontal direction and counteracts alignment of its fertility at tillage and application of fertilizers. Increase of heterogeneity of soil ploughed up in time is the favorable precondition for development of precise agriculture, that is, differentiations, mainly, of fertilizers application, ways and intensity of tillage depending on soil properties in various parts of ground allotments.

Thus, for a long time the processable soil under action of agricultural use becomes polygenetic formation in which alongside with natural factors active participation accepts the anthropogenous factor.

Key words: heterogeneity, vertical and horizontal profiles, influence of soil formation and anthropogenous processes
 

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CHEMISTRY OF SOILS / ХІМІЯ ҐРУНТІВ

 

Ожован О. О. Оптична щільність гумінових кислот автоморфних ґрунтів північно-західного Причорномор’я

Ozhovan O. O. The optical density of humine acids of automorphic soils of the north-western Prichernomorya region

 

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One of the modern and effective methods of studying nature of humic substances is determination of their optical density. The nature of light absorption in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum is caused by genetic peculiarities of humine acids, i.e. the ratio in their molecules of aromatic and aliphatic structures. Optical density is a measure of the degree condensed aromatic nucleus reflects the soil-climatic conditions of making humus and characterized by the following properties of humine acids as hydrophilicity, mobility, or the tendency to form complex compounds.

The value of studies of humic substances rises today as a result of significant losses of humus in soils, changes its fraction-group composition as a result of intensive agricultural use. The regularities of changes of humine acids in zone-the genetic aspect of do not reflect the influence of local conditions of soil formation on the optical properties of humine acids in soils of the same type and within the soil profile.

Object is automorphic soils of the North-Western Prichernomorya region, the subject - optical density of humine acids arable chernozems ordinary modal and micellar-carbonate and chernozems southern modal plowing and 40-year-old fallow, chernozems southern, derived from 15 years ago irrigation and chernozems southern carbonate floodplain terraces of the Danube.

Determination of optical density were carried out in a extract humine acids which have in the determination of humus.

The results of the research showed that the humine acids of the studied automorphous soils of the North-Western Prichernomorya region are characterized by high (0,177–0,195) and very high (0,223–0,275) indicators of optical density. Humine acids in ordinary and southern chernozems characterized by higher molecules` structuring than ordinary micellar-carbonate chernozems and southern carbonate chernozems.

The profiles of the studied soils coefficients of optical density of humine acids is gradually rising from the lower limit of the arable layer to the upper limit of transitional horizon, testifying to their structure. Less structured and, accordingly, more hydrophilic molecules of humine acids are concentrated in lower horizons. Not observed correlation of distribution of the coefficients of optical density distribution on the profile of humus.

For purpose of comparison between optical properties of humine acids, there has been computed a chromaticity-coefficient based on ratios of extinction-coefficients at 465 and 665 nm wavelengths (at a rate of E4:E6). This ratio doesn't depend on carbon concentration while reflecting a degree of the condensed aromatic nuclei’ input to construction of humine acids’ molecules. Abnormal structurization of molecules is observed in arable layers of ordinary modal chernozems, southern modal chernozems and off-irrigation southern chernozems, whereby the E4:E6 ratio makes up 2.8-2.9. Lesser structurization of humine acids’ molecules, due to reduced interactivity of condensed aromatic neclea and, correspondingly, increase of lateral aliphatic chains, in construction of humine acids’ molecules, is noted in ordinary micellar-carbonate and southern carbonate chernozems, where the increase in E4:E6 ratio makes up to 3.0–3.2. On other words, the humus in these soils is represented by juvenile, less matured humine acids.

It was revealed that as a result of domestication southern chernozems grows structure of the molecules of humine acids, as evidenced by an increase of 20 % indicators coefficients of optical density and decrease of the chromaticity – coefficient from 3,2 to 2,8.

Key words: optical density, chromaticity-coefficient, humine acids, chernozems
 

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БІОЛОГІЯ ҐРУНТІВ / BIOLOGY OF SOILS

 

Щербіна В. В., Мальцева І. А. Вплив пасторальної дигресії на ґрунтові водорості заповідних степових біогеоценозів

Shcherbyna V. V., Maltseva I. A. Influence of pastoral digressiya on soil algae of steppe reserve biogeocenosis

 

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Structure peculiarities of soil algae groups of steppe reserve biogeocenosis on the territories of Biosphere reserve «Askaniya-Nova», used for grazing of wild ungulates, have been analyzed. It has been discovered that under grazing in algogroups compared with the one on virgin lands the quantity of species, ratio of basic divisions, structure of the dominant complex and spectrum of algae life forms change. Indices of algae quantity and biomass also decrease. For two years of research the algae quantity (biomass) in the surface layer of soil on the territory of the virgin biogeocenosis has ranged from 55,53 to 125,57 thousand cells per 1g of ovendry soil (0,12–0,20 mg/g), and on the pasture these indices have ranged correspondently from 23,37 to 80,83 thousand cells per 1g of ovendry soil (0,05–0,11 mg/g).

Algae groups of pastures are characterised by equal number of species of green algae and cyanobacteria in contrast to virgin steppe biogeocenosis where green algae predominate. Pasture degression also influences the composition of the main families and genera. In algogroups of the pasture soils in Great Chapli Depression the list of the main families is headed by Phormidiaceae (6 species), Chlamydomonadaceae, Nostocaceae (5 species each), other main families number somewhat fewer species: Pleurochloridaceae, Bracteacoccaceae, Pseudanabaenaceae, Naviculaceae та Chlorococaceae (3 species each).Changes in phytocenosis structure (decreasing of projective cover and height of grass canopy), absence of plant waste layer on the soil surface create favourable conditions for the development of filamentous xerophytic species of P-formed algae in the surface soil layer. The richest algae biodiversity is observed in damper spring and autumn. In summer Eustigmatophyta and Xanthophyta disappear completely.

Dominants of algae communities of pasture: Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenberg) Grunow in Celeve et Grunow, Botrydiopsis eriensis Snow, Eustigmatos magnus (Petersen) Hibberd, Cylindrospermum licheniforme (Bory) Kützing, Phormidium autumnale (Agardh) Gomont, Ph. dimorphum Lemmermann, Ph. retzii (Agardh) Gomont, Nostoc paludosum Kützing, Bracteacoccus minor (Chodat) Petrová.

Dominants of algae communities of steppe biogeocenos:Phormidium autumnale, Hantzschia amphioxys, Pinnularia borealis Ehrenberg, Luticola mutica Kützing Mann in Round et al., Leptosira terricola (Bristol) Printz, Chlorosarcinopsis minor Herndon.

Key words: soil algae, algogroups, dominant complex, life form, quantity, biomass, steppe biogeocenosis, pasture, pastoral digressiya
 

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Бобрик Н. Ю., Кривцова М. В., Ніколайчук В. І. Біологічна активність ґрунтів призалізничних екосистем за мікробіологічними показниками

Bobryk N. Y., Kryvtsova M. V., Nikolaichuk V. I. Biological activity of the pre-railway ecosystems soils for microbiological indicators

 

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Soil microbial cenosis is the most informative component able to react quickly to the changes in ecological conditions due to the high level of adaptation, and to determine a considerable degree the ecological state of the soil.

The soil qualitative and quantitative factors, in particular its microbiocenotic structure, is significantly affected by the industrial enterprises and means of transportation of different types. All wastes left due to the passing of passenger and freight trains enter the soil and underground waters close to the railway tracks and spread on to the adjacent fields and croplands polluting the ground layer. Due to different intensity of rail traffic at different sections of the railway, monitoring of the impact of this transport upon the adjacent ecosystems, including soil microbiocenosis, and comparative analysis of biological activity of the soils exposed to different kinds of the railway stations, continue to be topical issues of great importance.

The purpose of this work has been to determine the biological activity of the soils of the ecosystems along the railways by such indices as the ratio and quantitative composition of certain groups of the soil microorganisms classified by their nutrition source, and to determine the soil cellulolytic activity.

The analysis of soil microbial cenosis was carried out with the use of differential diagnostic nutrient media by method of serial dissolution of the soil suspension. To determine the general soil biological activity, Mishustin’s application method was applied. By the ratio of different ecological trophic groups of microorganisms, and by the cellulose decomposition intensity scale, conclusions were made regarding the biological activity of the soils located at different distances from the railways (0, 25, 50 and 100 m) laid along the outskirts of the city of Uzhhorod.

The results of the research showed the impairment of the soil biocenosis of the ecosystems located close to the rail tracks laid along the outskirts of Uzhhorod. The soil abutting on the rail tracks (distance 0 m) was shown to be characterized by reduced levels of ammonifiers, micromycetes, nitrogen fixers and mixobacteria; heightened number of actinobacteria, oligonitrophils, cryptogamic microbiota and lowered cellulolytic activity – all proving the unfavourable state of the soils. With moving off the rail track, the microbiological indices tended to stabilize, and general biological activity of the soil was rising.

Thus, functioning of soil microbial cenosis and its cellulolytic activity are susceptible to the impact of anthropogenic factors, particularly to the rail transport. Therefore, these data are worth using as bioindicators of the land subject to anthropogenic load.

Key words: railway transport, soil cellulolytic activity, ammonificators, myxobacteria, oligonitrophilous
 

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Малиновська І. М., Літвінов Д. В. Вплив вирощування у монокультурі на мікробіологічні процеси у кореневій зоні кукурудзи та сої

Malinovskaya I. M., Litvinov D. V. Monoculture cultivation impact on microbiological processes in the root zone of maize and soybeans

 

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Stationary test alternatives for cultivation of maize and soybeans in the permanent crops and short rotary crop successions have been researched. It is established that the cultivation of maize in monoculture leads to an intensification of soil organic matter consumption compared to crop rotation: without the applying of mineral fertilizers to 58.7 %, with the application of mineral fertilizers - to 28.4 %; increasing of humus mineralization: without fertilizers to 59.0 %, with the introduction of N60P40K60 – to 38.5 %; mineralization activation of nitrogen compounds in 2.5 and 2.6 times.

Monoculture cultivation of soybeans is also accompanied with an intensification of development of the organic matter in the soil, increasing of humus mineralization and the mineralization activation of nitrogen compounds.

When growing in crop rotation in the root zone of the studied cultures more stable and robust microbial communities are being formed. It is evidenced by the increasing number of highly significant correlations than when growing crops in permanent sowing. When cultivating the maize and soybeans in monoculture without fertilizers the total number of microorganisms is being decreased, compared to the cultivating in crop rotation, to 32.7 and 20.8 %. When cultivating the maize in monoculture with mineral fertilizers total number of microorganisms is almost unchanged. Thus, application of fertilizers, especially organic (manure), makes it possible to reduce the effect of soil fatigue at maize monocultivation, at least by brief periods of permanent cultivation.

When the maize cultivating in a permanent corns the micromycetes development compared to crop rotation is 2.7 times (at fertilization), for soybeans this index is 3.08 times. Physiological and biochemical activity of micromycetes also increases: in the root zone of maize – in 2.19 times, in the root zone of soybeans – in 1.36 times. Physiological and biochemical activity of micromycetes significantly increases as well as in alternatives for crop cultivation without application of fertilizers.

When growing cultures in the permanent crops without fertilizer the number of azotobacter is minimum; with the application of mineral fertilizers its population increases substantially; during the growth of crops in the rotation – on the contrary – the application of mineral fertilizers leads to a decrease in the number of azotobacter.

A high amount of polysaccharide synthesizing microorganisms in the check soil (without fertilizer) is revealed, which can be explained by lack of mineral elements. As a result of application of mineral fertilizers the number of polysaccharide synthesizing bacteria decreases: in the soil root zone of maize (crop rotation) in 3.43 times, in the soil root zone of soybean (monoculture) in 1.46 times. When the maize cultivating in monoculture fertilizer does not affect the number of polysaccharide synthesizing microorganisms, demonstrates the complexity of the operation of multicomponent and multifactorial biological systems.

Mechanism of quantity change of acid-producing microorganisms is almost identical to the mechanism of azotobacter spread: in crop rotations the optimization of plant nutrition leads to a decrease in the number of acid-producing microorganisms, in the permanent crops - to an increase.

Monocultivation of maize for 6 years accompanied by a loss of total organic matter and humus content: by 14.5 % (without fertilizer) and by 10.4 % (with fertilizer); at monocultivation of soybeans – by 8.45 and 2.7 %, respectively. The application of mineral and organic fertilizers slows down the process of mineralization of humus compounds, while soybean monocultivation the process is slower than while maize monocultivation.

Oligotrophy factor at maize cultivation in monoculture is increased by 13.3 % at the absence of fertilizer and by 37.3 % – at the optimal mineral nutrition of plants. Cultivation of maize in monoculture is accompanied by increased mineralization of humus compounds: in the version without fertilizers by 59.0 %, with fertilizers – by 38.5 %. Cultivation of soybean in monoculture at mineral fertilization is also accompanied by an intensification of development of organic matter – in 1.98 times, mineralization of nitrogen compounds in 3.13 times, increased mineralization of humus compounds in 1.63 times.

Key words: microbial community, mineralization, organic matter, humus, nitrogen, maize, soybeans, monoculture, crop rotation
 

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Елланська Н. Е., Левчик Н. Я., Юношева О. П. Мікробні угруповання прикореневого ґрунту представників роду Vitex L.

Ellanska N. E., Levchyk N. Y., Yunosheva O. P. Rhizosphere microbial community of genus Vitex L. representatives

 

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This article gives results of microbiological and mycological researches of root ground of three types of Vitex representatives (V. agnus-сastus, V. cannabifolia, V. negundо) (2, 5 and 30-years old). The comparative characteristic of microbial groups was investigated in dynamic according to the Vitex development phases. The decreasing of nitrogen-transforming microorganisms was shown at the end of vegetation in all variants. During intensive vegetation the number of ground bacteria decreased accordingly to control. At the same time secretions of 30-years old plants contributed to the development of bacterial flora. The most intensive transformation of organic substances was at the beginning of vegetation in rhizosphere of 5-years old plants and in the end of vegetation – 30-years old plants. The decreasing of quantity and narrowing of micromycetes trivial spectrum were found in rhizosphere of all investigated variants during budding-flowering phase. The species that belongs to Acremonium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium and Trichoderma genus formed basis of micromycetes complexes. The plants’ secretions allelopathy influence on soil of older plants was more effective then 2-years old. The number of soil micromycetes increased at the end of Vitex plants vegetation.

The variability of cellulose-destructive microorganisms’ quantity and cellulose moldering on different variants were observed depending phase of plants’ development. The increasing of quantity and activity of cellulolyitic microorganisms were registered in spring time. During budding-flowering phase the number of cellulose-destructive microorganisms reached its maximum level, an intensity of cellulose moldering process decreased depending on plants age and reached its minimum level in soil under 30-years plants. It testifies that older plant secretions oppress fermentative abilities of this type of microorganisms. In autumn time, during decreasing of all physiological processes in plants, their number decrease as well. In spring time cellulose moldering process occurred due to bacteria activity, in summer time – with actinomycetes domination and in autumn time – bacteria and fungi.

The low level of actinomycetes activity was found in rhizosphere of all experimental plants. The lowest level, during all periods of observation, was founded in 30-years plants rhizosphere. Ground clods were 100 % fouled by Azotobacter chroococcum culture on Ashby medium in all variants of experiment. Microbiological researches demonstrate that functioning of different groups of microorganisms in rhizosphere as influenced by Vitex, depending on phase of plant development, intensity of physiological processes, age and species. The number of different ecology-trophic and taxonomic groups of microorganisms mostly determines by plants’ age, but not their species belonging. The microbiota biogenic activity of 2- and 5-years old plants are higher then 30-years old plants. The dependence between composition of microbial community and mostly plants age, than type or development phase, has been established.

Key words: microorganisms, micromycetes, bacteria, azotobacter, cellulolyitic activity
 

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FOREST SOIL SCIENCE / ЛІСОВЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО

 

Мальцев Є. І. Екологічні особливості альгоугруповань лісових підстилок заплавних дібров степової зони України

Maltsev Eu. I. Ecological features of algae communities in forest floor of floodplain oak woods in steppe area of Ukraine

 

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To better learn the structure of the forest it needs to be understood as biogeocoenosis. This is especially important in the steppe zone, where forests exist in terms of environmental non-compliance. Lack of moisture, dry air, high summer temperatures affect the makeup of the living above-ground cover. One of the stabilizing factors is the forest floor, which formed by plant debris and leaves.

In considering forest floor should not be forgotten that it apart from the processes destruction of plant residues, it is the place of functional activity of photosynthetic microalgae, some of which are able to fix molecular nitrogen, enriching forest floor by physiologically active substances: vitamins, enzymes and hormones. So aim of the research was to determine the environmental features of algae communities in forest floor of natural and artificial floodplain oak forests in steppe zone of Ukraine.

In forest floor of Samara (Dnipropetrovsk region) floodplain oak forests had 24 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta – 12 (50 %), Xanthophyta – 5 (21 %), Cyanophyta – 3 (13 %), Bacillariophyta – 2 (8 %) and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (8 %). The most common were Pleurochloridaceae, Stichococcaceae, Bracteacoccaceae and Myrmeciaceae. In forest floor of Staro-Berdyansk (Zaporizhia region) floodplain oak forests had 18 species of algae with 4 divisions: Chlorophyta – 10 (56 %), Cyanophyta – 4 (22 %), Bacillariophyta – 2 (11 %), Xanthophyta – 2 (11 %). The most common were Pseudanabaenaceae, Chlorellaceae, Myrmeciaceae and Stichococcaceae.

In total forest floor of Samara (Dnipropetrovsk region) and Staro-Berdyansk (Zaporizhia region) floodplain oak forests had 33 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta – 17 (52 %), Cyanophyta – 6 (18 %), Xanthophyta – 6 (18 %), Bacillariophyta – 2 (6 %) and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6 %). We have allocated eight leading families. The most common were Myrmeciaceae, Stichococcaceae and Pleurochloridaceae. The list of leading by the number of species of the genus includes Stichococcus (4 species), Phormidium and Chlorella (2 species). From environmental point of view algae communities of oaks forest floor formed by edaphophilic species. Seasonal dynamics of algae indicates a decrease in the number of species in the summer and increase in spring.

Dominants of algae communities: Mychonastes homosphaera (Skuja) Kalina et Punčochářová, Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kützing) Silva et al., Trichromus variabilis (Kützing ex Bornet et Flahault) Komárek et Anagnostidis, Phormidium autumnale (Agardh) Gomont, Nephrodiella phaseolus Pascher, Gloeobotrys sphagnophilus Ettl, Pseudococcomyxa simplex (Mainx) Fott, Chlorosarcina rivularis Pankow et Möller, Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck.

Key words: forest floor, algae, algae communities, floodplain oak forest
 

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RECLAMATION OF DISTURBED SOILS / РЕКУЛЬТИВАЦІЯ ПОРУШЕНИХ ҐРУНТІВ

 

Kharytonov M. M., Resio Espejo J.M. Prospects of the Nikopol manganese basin rocks using for land reclamation

M. M. Харитонов, Х. М. Ресіо Еспехо Перспективи використання гірських порід Нікопольського марганцевого басейну для рекультивації земель

 

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The rocks of the Nikopol manganese ore basin in the southeast part of Ukraine are presented the holocene, postpliocene, neogen and paleogen deposits. Taken on day surface they are problem for environment management for the future. The reclamation of disturbed land is conducted in one technological cycle with the process of manganese ore mining. The soil mass is taken off, piled up and heaped onto the land after the rock has been replaced.The seven rocks and southern black soil were divided in five classes after laboratory and field experiments of long standing (Масюк, 1984). It was established that plant melioration of rocks with perennial legumes grasses lead to improvement their fertility.The effectiveness of different models of land recultivation and heavy metals migration through rock-soil-plant system was researched. The physical-chemical investigation of the organic substances formation particularities were done.It is determined the humic asids level is dicreased according to southern black soil to 10 times. It was established also, phytomeliorated rocks had the differences in a low ratio of the humic and fulvoacids (0.2–0.5). The field experiments were carried out to study adaptive potential for the plants having different requirements for substrate fertility. Main task was to note the prospects of the mined land management for the rocks of the Nikopol manganese basin. The experiments used disturbed rocks as technogenic substrata to grow crops in a special rotation. The main minerals of rocks silty fraction consist of feldspar, calcite, hydro mica, montmorillonite, chlorite and kaolinite. The case when weathered rocks accumulate the high level of manganese was fixed for dark-grey schist clay. It was established the rocks getting on the day surface after manganese ore mining and plant melioration stages pass in other geochemical conditions and change their physical-chemical properties due to the process of bioweathering. Some adaptive reactions for alfalfa have been learned for different substrata (loess-like loam, red-brown and grey-green clay). The alfalfa was in stress in the first year of life, but it gave essential yield growth in the next years comparative to southern black soil . It was connected with high level of the energy accumulation with alfalfa as well. It was shown also that the preliminary melioration of rocks by alfalfa provide the simbiotic nitrogen fixation at the level 50–70 % more than in case with southern black soil. Other approaches application for substrata’ organic substance composition evaluation(gel chromatography, potentiometer titration with 0,1N KMnО4,etc) gave an opportunity to reveal the formation of the humic fractions with a high movability and low molecular weight. Additional steps to improve phytomeliorated rocks fertility have been done within last 7 years. In particular it was fixed that soybean treated by root-substrate mix ithout VAM and Glomus mosscae Isolate could use phosphorus of hard soluble combinations for montmorillonite clay using. The fields’ experiments to check winter wheat seeds treatment with different biological preparations were conducted for a last 5-7 years at the land reclamation station in the Nikopol Manganese Basin.These rocks were involved in that experiment after long term plant meliuoration. However, it is clear that long-term plant melioration allow opening the bacterial fertiliser’s efficiency. Thus the data approved that crops during long-term melioration have dramatically improved some processes as following: bioweathering of rocks, phytomeliorated rocks fertility growth, etc. Preliminary phytomelioration of rock mass may be recommended as technological model of land reclamation in similar mining regions after long-term geochemical monitoring.

Key words: manganese basin, land reclamation, rocks, soils, crops, humus quality, trace elements, bacterial fertilizers.
 

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Зверковский В. Н., Кузенко Ю. Н. Требования к техническому этапу лесной рекультивации и их обеспечение

Zverkovsky V. N., Kuzenko Yu. N. Requirements for technical stage of forest recultivation and their implementation

 

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On the disturbed industrial areas the main technogenesis factors change natural environment drastically, thereby the emerged anthropogenic landscapes are unsuitable for biological development. On the preparatory stage of recultivation the system examination of disturbed areas and the projection of recultivation activities are conducted. On the next technological and biological stages of recultivation of disturbed lands in Western Donets Basin forest experimental cultures on the mine dumps is established. Utilization of mine rocks is carried out through their filling the local hollows which had arose in consequence of subsidence. On the flat part of the dumps and on the slopes of different steepness various kinds of artificial soil from delivered sand, loam and chernozem with thickness of 0–2 m are established. The total area of experimental allotments is 76 ha where 30 wood and shrub species are tested.

The optimum shape, configuration and angles of waste dump slopes are evaluated. Physical, chemical, ecological properties and forest vegetation effect of waste dump and artificial soils were studied. It is given the assessment of the appropriateness and effectiveness of usage of various agriculture substrata getting from local resources on unhandy lands, where industrial soil disturbance in mining leases is planning.

The optimum capacity and the stratigraphical structure of recultivation layer are experimentally determined.

On the experimental areas almost full neutralization of waste dump negative influence on natural environment is reached. Microclimatic characteristics of different types of plantations, peculiarities of dunnage forming and living soil cover development indicate of positive environment formation of experimental forest cultures. Phytoreclamation effect of different composition and construction is defined in comparison. This allows revealing perspective types of forest cultures on waste dump.

For systematization of forest plantation conditions on different variants of recultivation the principals of forest typology, artificial forests, developed by A. L. Belgard (1960), are used and supplemented.

The variants of artificial soils with high forest growth effect are proposed.

Key words: technogenesis, soil disturbance, artificial soils, forest recultivation
 

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Довгалюк И. Г., Котович А. В. Проблема засоленных почв Украины и перспективы использования отходов содового производства для их мелиорации

Dovgaluk I. G., Kotovich A. V. Soil salinization problem in Ukraine and prospects of waste soda products usage for land reclamation

 

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In the paper the history of soil salinization study in Ukraine, as well as the contribution of individual experts in this field, the development of geography, the genesis and reclamation methods of Ukrainian saline soils are presented. The questions of placement of saline soils in Ukraine are elucidated. Particularly the areas occupied by saline soils are shown, according to various experts they are from 3403 to 4 million hectares. The geographical distribution area of solonetzic soils is presented: in the forest-steppe – Chernihiv Polesia in part, and in the steppe – mostly dry steppe.

The reclamation principles of solonetzic soils associated with efforts to reduce the level of groundwater salinization, self-reclamation using trench-plough and chemical reclamation of saline soils issues are disclosed. Separately, there are the issues related to the chemical reclamation, as well as the currency of such activities in connection with the potential to carry out reclamation using artificial chemical ameliorators being wastes of industrial production of caustic soda.

It is noted that the amount of gypsum, which is necessary to remove the active sodium, is a calculated value and determined by an equivalent amount of exchangeable sodium which must be pushed out of the soil in a particular absorbing complex reclaimed soil layer. In this connection predictive estimate of the amount of gypsum, which is necessary for reclamation activities on a national scale, is a great scientific and practical interest. A preliminary assessment of saline soils necessity in the chemical ameliorators using data on the area of saline soils in Ukraine is received.

It is calculated that the area requiring gypsum is about 2,320 hectares. Recalculating that figure by the average application rate per unit area of – 5 t/ha, we get rough estimate of saline soils in artificial ameliorators – 11,600 tons (estimated content of exchange sodium in the soil layer 0–30 cm and volume weight of solonetzic soil horizons on the average is 2). It is noted that the radical improvement of saline soils in each case must take into account the degree of alkalinity of the soil profile, depth of carbonate, gypsum and saline horizons, as well as other factors that determine the nature of the required reclamation and agrotechnical activities. For the purposes of chemical reclamation of saline soils along with gypsum the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) may be used and other calcium-containing materials. One of these ameliorators is lime sludge, which is a waste of soda production of some enterprises of Ukraine (Sloviansk Soda Factory, PC “Lysychansk Soda” and “Crimean Soda Factory”), which contains in its composition calcium and magnesium carbonates.

Application of sludge in saline soil has a positive impact on their physicochemical, physical and hydro-physical properties, which is associated with changes in soil cation-exchange properties. It is established that the content of exchangeable Ca and Mg in the second year after the application of sludge in combination with organic fertilizer at 5 t/ha, in alkaline soil layer 0–40 cm, increases: Ca – from 13.8 to 17.5, and Mg – from 1.7 to 2.5 mg-eq/100 g soil. In this case, there is a decrease of hydrolytic acidity of soils with 2,1–1,6 up to 3,6–3,8 mg-eq/100 g (in the layer 25–40 cm) in the second year after ameliorator application. Water and salt pH changes are observed. Thus, the application of sludge in a dark grey podzolized soil causes an increase in the salt pH of the soil solution in the first year after the introduction from 5.3–5.6 to 5.8–6.1.

The question of sludge influence on the level of crop yield is examined. It is shown that with the introduction of sludge in various quantities and combinations, increase winter wheat yield is 3.0–3.8 c/ha, barley 3,0–4,7 c/ha, maize 8,1–10,2 c/ha, peas up to 4.4 c/ha, oats 4.2–4.6 c/ha. Most responsive to the introduction of the sludge is fodder beet, there is an increase in yield to 42–100 c/ha. Application of sludge in combination with organic fertilizers increases the efficiency to 10–12 %.

Key words: chemical reclamation of saline soils, chemical ameliorators, cation-exchange capacity of soils, the level of crop yield
 

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Горбань В. А., Макалей З. А. Роль физико-химических и физических исследований при лесной рекультивации в условиях степной зоны Украины

Gorban V. A., Malakei Z. A. The role of physicochemical and physical research by forest recultivation in the steppe zone of Ukraine

 

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The most relevant area of rehabilitation of the steppe zone is forestry, by which environmentally dangerous areas are planted with sylvula. Artificial forest through its environment transformation has a positive impact on the steppe conditions: increases humidity, decreases wind speed, protects the soil from erosion, etc.

However, it should be noted that the establishment of forest in steppe zone is an activity associated with certain difficulties, even on the fertile black soils. Other great difficulties are encountered in the forest breeding in disturbed or heavily modified by industry areas, including the production of soda. This is due to the transformation properties of the substrate, particularly its physicochemical and physical characteristics, in the process of industrial land use. That must be taken into account in forest recultivation.

The main physicochemical and physical parameters of the substrates, which may limit or completely exclude the success of forest restoration:

• actual acidity, the definition of which is necessary for a variety of purposes, primarily for the selection of plants, because some of them stand a high value of pH, others – low. Tree species are characterized by a high resistance to acidity compared with crops. At a pH value of H2O soils divided into strong-acid (3–4), acid (4–5), weakly acid (5–6), neutral (7) alkaline (7–8) and strong-alkaline.

• the content of water-soluble salts, the excess of which in the soil inhibits the growth of plants. Toxicity of salts depends on the concentration and composition of salts and plant species. The most harmful are aluminum sulphate, soda and potash. Consequently, it is necessary to determine not only the total amount of soluble salts, but also their composition. However, the composition should be determined only if the salt is more than 0.15 %. This value is taken for the fact that many plants stand the concentration of salt sulphates 0.2–0.3 %, and chlorides – 0.1 %.

• the content of humus, the most valuable part of the soil, which causes the water-stable structure, affecting its many physical, physicochemical and biological properties. Also humus contains more than 3 % of N, 2–2,5 % of Р2О5; 1.5–2 % of К2O, microelements. In the decomposition of humus all the elements are liberated and become available to plants.

• texture of soil, which often plays a decisive role in the formation of artificial plantations. Substrates with a high content of physical clay give large amounts of bound moisture which is inaccessible to the plants. In the substrates with a high content of physical sand the moisture migrates rapidly into the lower layers, and often becomes inaccessible to the plants. On this basis, the most favorable for plant growth substrates are sandy-loam and loamy granulometric composition.

Thus, in the steppe zone of Ukraine forest recultivation of disturbed land is one of the most relevant methods for conservation and restoration of soil cover.

The most important physicochemical parameters that need to be investigated in forest rehabilitation of territories with waste soda production contamination are the actual acidity, the presence of water-soluble salts, humus content, the degree of gleization, fractional composition of the silty fraction. The most important physical parameters that define the ability of forest recultivation are mechanical (grain-size) composition, hardness and water-physical properties.

Key words: forest recultivation, soda production, steppe zone
 

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